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Amélie Auzoux

Abstract

Cette étude consiste à montrer le rapport qu’entretient Valery Larbaud (1881–1957) à l’autre, étranger eth nique ou linguistique, entre les deux guerres. Écrivain voyageur, critique et traducteur français, Valery Larbaud s’est éloigné du concept abstrait de l’Homme, hérité des classiques, pour explorer la diversité concrète des hommes, des peuples et des langues. Mais dans un siècle où les discours scientistes classent la différence et divisent les peuples en autant d’espèces inégales, Larbaud a su maintenir l’unité biologique du genre. Ainsi se réfugie-t-il dans un universalisme chrétien où la croyance en l’unité fraternelle de la créature l’éloigne des tentations racistes.

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From Exoticism to Authenticity

Textbooks during French Colonization and the Modern Literature of Global Tourism

Claudine Moïse

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This article explores the French fascination with “the primitive” and “the exotic” in the post–World War I years through a study of representations of the French colonies in textbooks intended for primary and secondary schoolchildren. It then compares these representations with contemporary French-anguage tourist literature in Ontario, Canada, demonstrating continuities between these “exotic” representations of the colonial other and contemporary discourses centered on “authenticity” in the world of international tourism.

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L’ordre et le bonheur

Langues, nations, et territoires dans la réorganisation de l’Europe après la Première guerre mondiale

Sébastien Moret

Abstract

Avant même la fin de la Première guerre mondiale, des discussions s’ébauchèrent pour tenter d’imaginer l’Europe de l’après-guerre. Dans le cadre de cet article, nous nous intéresserons à un aspect particulier de ces discussions relatives à l’Europe nouvelle, la volonté affichée dans de nombreux textes d’aboutir à une réorganisation naturelle et scientifique du continent, avec la conviction sous-jacente qu’une telle réorganisation ne pouvait qu’aboutir à une paix durable, puisque chaque Etat aurait ainsi été à sa place légitime. Pour parvenir à cette cartographie parfaite de l’Europe, c’est avant tout à la linguistique, dans ses conceptions romantique et naturaliste, que l’on fit appel. Pourtant, au début du vingtième siècle, les idées romantiques et naturalistes sur la langue avaient été contredites et démenties au profit d’une conception sociale de la langue. Il faudra donc se demander pourquoi des idées scientifiques dépassées firent leur retour à ce moment particulier de l’histoire européenne.

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Nicole Abravanel

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Cet article se concentre sur le rÔle de la spatialité dans le monde des Juifs de Méditerranée orientale, qui est configuré comme un espace en réseaux. À travers le dissensusdes réceptions d’un ouvrage paru en 1925 (Joseph Pérez d’A. Navon) est mis en avant le fait que la spatialité doive être étudiée conjointement et comparativement tant du point de vue de l’observateur, que de l’observé, de façon à se départir de stéréotypes préconstruits relevantde l’opposition Orient/Occident. La parution de Joseph Pérez fut concomitante d’unegrande vogue littéraire exotique et orientaliste. Elle construisit l’image d’un juif “oriental,” qui se présente donc comme le refl et de cette opposition. L’étude du positionnement depersonnages tant chez A. Navon que dans la grande oeuvre d’Albert Cohen révèle la strate sous-jacente d’un espace articulé diffèremment tant au plan des représentations que del’espace effectif de circulation transterritoriale des acteurs sépharades.

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Romanticizing Difference

Identities in Transformation after World War I

Nadia Malinovich

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Ecaterina Lung

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• The aim of this article is to highlight the ways in which women were represented in Byzantine historical works from the sixth to the ninth centuries. These are probably the best sources for a comprehensive understanding of Byzantine society, since they are more vivid, more related to literature than the law codes or archival documents, and less biased than the clergy’s writings. Like “Barbarians,” women were thought to be inferior, irrational, highly emotional, and unable to control their impulses. Byzantine women did not seem to have an identity of their own; they were always thought to be a reflection of a male. Byzantine authors believed that the normal behavior for women was to remain secluded in their houses, but when they actually presented individual women, these were almost always those who did not confine themselves to women’s quarters. A woman’s main avenue of entering written history was to behave like a man, renouncing her gender and acting in an independent manner.

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Envisaging Eternity

Salian Women’s Religious Patronage

Nina Verbanaz

Abstract

The Salian rulers of the German realm in the eleventh century, like other medieval monarchs, maintained a complex relationship with the church. This article examines Salian women’s participation in this relationship. Through founding cathedrals, establishing monasteries, and making donations, Salian women performed traditional queenly activities and helped establish their dynasty as legitimate rulers of the empire. Charter and chronicle evidence reveal the Salian queens’ significant and acknowledged role in the foundation of Speyer Cathedral and their influence in the adoption of the imperial practice of dynastic burial of male and female rulers in its crypt. In addition to the relationship between the Salian women and Speyer Cathedral, this article looks to their charitable donations, attested in chronicles and letters, and discusses in particular Agnes of Poitou’s (d. 1077) deathbed donations. The women of the Salian dynasty created a family identity and memory through active participation in relationships with the church.

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Introduction

Women, Gender, Law, and Remembering Shona Kelly Wray

Linda E. Mitchell

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Misbehaving Women

Trespass and Honor in Late Medieval English Towns

Teresa Phipps

Abstract

England’s medieval town court records reveal significant information on the social and economic relationships of ordinary urban residents. These relationships and conflicts concerning them are particularly evident in trespass litigation: complaints about physical and verbal assaults and the theft of goods. This article uses trespass pleas from the towns of Nottingham, Chester, and Winchester in the fourteenth century to explore the gendered nature of trespass litigation and the implications that this misbehavior had for understandings of honor and reputation in urban society. It demonstrates the ways in which women were involved in trespasses as both complainants and defendants. While women were less frequent litigants than men, the records reveal continuity between their actions in trespasses. This article thus broadens the framework of female honor beyond sexual behavior to encompass interpersonal relationships, a broad range of physical and verbal attacks, and concerns about economic fidelity.

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Miriam Shadis

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This article examines a series of wills created by members of the royal family of Portugal over three generations, from the mid-twelfth to the mid-thirteenth century. Wills served different functions depending on the political context of their makers: fundamentally pious documents, expressing hopes for salvation, they also worked to shape the political future of the realm. Above all, these wills demonstrate certain features of material life and the deep personal connections enjoyed by members of this large and fractious family.