Browse

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 11,499 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Le moment Lamennais

Modern Slavery and the Re-description of People (and Democracy) in Spain and Chile

Gonzalo Capellán

Abstract

Upon his controversial and successful publication of Words of a Believer (1834), Lamennais became one of the most influential thinkers in Europe and America. Lamennais's other works, such as Modern Slavery, have received surprisingly less attention, considering that with it he made a re-description of the concept people and consequently of democracy. Lamennais's presentation of the antagonism between liberty and tyranny, between a few oppressors (privileged classes) and the majority of the oppressed (the people) turned him into a key reference for the democratic, republican, and socialist political cultures. We can then speak of a “Lamennais moment” as opposed to the “Guizot moment,” which offered conflicting world views. This article combines an analysis of the translations and circulation of Modern Slavery in Spain and Latin America with the study of the new meanings of the concept people.

Full access

Leçon 1 du cours

« Théorie spéciale des sanctions »

François Pizarro Noël

Résumé

La publication de la leçon inédite du cours de physiques des mœurs et du droit de 1899 sur les sanctions pénales permet de mieux comprendre la typologie des sanctions et responsabilités que Durkheim planifiait de déployer dans le cadre de cette dernière partie de l'éthique objective consacrée à la théorie spéciale des sanctions. Nous nous attardons plus particulièrement, dans cet article, sur la réfutation de la définition de la peine par la douleur et sur les arguments que Durkheim amène pour corriger la définition de la peine qui figure dans la DTS. Nous présentons également l'ébauche d'une typologie des sanctions négatives qui figure dans cette leçon et qui montre que la définition sociologique des sanctions pénales passe par leur comparaison avec d'autres sanctions négatives, tant répressives (publiques et privées) que restitutives (civiles). Enfin, nous soulignons l'intérêt qu'il y a à explorer certains éléments du texte, notamment les sanctions positives et l'éthique subjective qui, bien qu'ils y soient peu développés, permettraient sans doute de parfaire notre compréhension de la sociologie de la morale de Durkheim.

Full access

Les deux catégories cachées de La Doctrine de Durkheim

Le programme de sociologie de la connaissance d'Halbwachs

Jean-Christophe Marcel

Résumé

La Doctrine de Durkheim, texte écrit par Halbwachs en 1918, nous éclaire sur la filiation intellectuelle qui les relie l'un à l'autre. En effet, il met en évidence un intérêt qui va s'avérer durable dans l'œuvre d'Halbwachs : la sociologie de la connaissance, dans la droite ligne de ce que Durkheim présente dans la conclusion des Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Or si Halbwachs insiste sur la portée de l'œuvre de Durkheim en matière de sociologie religieuse dans le domaine de la connaissance, c'est aussi le seul point sur lequel il se permet dans le texte d'adjoindre un développement personnel, preuve supplémentaire qu'il lui accorde de l'importance. Il est d'accord avec Durkheim pour affirmer que la connaissance consiste en un ensemble de classifications dont l'origine est sociale, et qu'ainsi la pensée conceptuelle répond au même besoin que la pensée capable déjà de classer, des primitifs, si bien qu'entre leur pensée logique et la nôtre, la différence n'est que de degrés et pas de nature. Il s'accorde aussi à dire, à la suite de Durkheim et Mauss, que l'évolution fait passer de classifications totémiques à des classifications spatiales, et à la pensée conceptuelle contemporaine, mais selon lui sans qu'on en sache beaucoup plus sur le passage du 2e au 3e stade de cette évolution. Aussi Halbwachs esquisse-t-il, en guise de complément, un élément de réponse pour combler ce vide, et, ce faisant, révèle une sensibilité qui annonce ses travaux futurs. Aux catégories de la pensée (espace, temps, causalité etc.) déjà étudiées par Durkheim, il ajoute celles de changement et d'individu, dont il va faire usage dans ses travaux ultérieurs pour expliquer ce mouvement de civilisation qu'est le passage des sociétés rurales aux sociétés urbaines.

Open access

Les repas des Marocains

Comparaison entre Casablanca et des communes rurales du Souss (enquête de 2013)

Laurence Tibère, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Nicolas Bricas, Driss Boumeggouti, and Claude Fischler

Abstract: This article provides an overview of Moroccan people’s eating habits, in a context of urbanisation and, more broadly, of ongoing changes in lifestyles and social aspirations. The analysis is mainly based on data from a quantitative survey conducted between 2012 and 2013. It focuses on the differences and commonalities between the meals of Casablanca residents and those of the inhabitants of rural areas in the Souss region. The article points out the existence of differentiated situations between the two contexts, particularly with regard to the number of meals or food sociability. It also shows the importance of certain habits, both in the city and in rural villages, such as the social valuation of certain dishes or products, or the importance of commensality.

Résumé : Cet article propose un panorama des habitudes des Marocains relatives aux repas, dans un contexte d’urbanisation et, plus largement, de mutations en cours dans les modes de vie et les aspirations sociales. L’analyse se fonde principalement sur les données d’une enquête quantitative menée entre 2012 et 2013. Elle porte sur les différences et les points de convergence entre les repas des Casablancais et ceux des habitants de communes rurales du Souss. L’article pointe l’existence de situations différenciées entre les deux contextes, s’agissant en particulier du nombre des repas ou encore des sociabilités alimentaires. Il montre aussi la prégnance, en ville comme dans les villages ruraux, de certaines habitudes, telle que la valorisation de certains plats ou produits, ou l’importance de la commensalité.

Restricted access

Andonis Piperoglou

Diane Comer. The Braided River: Migration and the Personal Essay (Otago University Press, 2019), 304 pp., ISBN 9781988531533, $35 (paperback).

Restricted access

Looking for Something to Signify

Something to Signify Gender Performance and Cuban Masculinity in Viva

David Yagüe González

The behaviors and actions that an individual carries out in their daily life and how they are translated by their society overdetermine the gender one might have—or not—according to social norms. However, do the postulates enounced by feminist and queer Western thinkers still maintain their validity when the context changes? Can the performances of gender carry out their validity when the landscape is other than the one in Europe or the United States? And how can the context of drag complicate these matters? These are the questions that this article will try to answer by analyzing the 2015 movie Viva by Irish director Paddy Breathnach.

Restricted access

Making Sense of the Human-Nature Relationship

A Reception Study of the “Nature Is Speaking” Campaign on YouTube

Ulrika Olausson

Abstract

Gaining knowledge about laypeople's representations of nature is crucial to meeting the sustainability challenges ahead. However, the ways laypeople discursively construct nature in digital settings have received scant attention. Guided by Stuart Hall's theory of encoding/decoding and multimodal critical discourse analysis, this study aims to contribute knowledge about the ways laypeople construct the human-nature relationship on social media. This is accomplished through a reception study of YouTube users’ discussions about two of the films in the campaign “Nature Is Speaking.” The results show that the human-nature dichotomy largely prevails notwithstanding the pluralist nature of YouTube users’ interpretations, but also indicate the (embryonic) potential of social media to open up for a politics revolving around new visions of the socio-environmental future.

Restricted access

Mirror Neurons and Film Studies

A Cautionary Tale from a Serious Pessimist

Malcolm Turvey

Abstract

This article surveys some of the major criticisms of mirror neuron explanations of human behavior within neuroscience and philosophy of mind. It then shows how these criticisms pertain to the recent application of mirror neuron research to account for some of our responses to movies, particularly our empathic response to film characters and our putative simulation of anthropomorphic camera movements. It focuses especially on the “egocentric” conception of the film viewer that mirror neuron research appears to license. In doing so, it develops a position called “serious pessimism” about the potential contribution of neuroscience to the study of film and art by building upon the “moderate pessimism” recently proposed by philosopher David Davies. It also offers some methodological recommendations for how film scholars should engage with the sciences.

Restricted access

More than Darkness Preservation

The Importance of the Dark, Star-Filled Skies in Urban Areas

Yee-Man Lam

Abstract

Enveloped in artificial light, many urban dwellers have never experienced real darkness. Seeing this as a loss, scholars and organizations have initiated discussions on light and darkness and advocated the preservation of the dark skies. This article aims to further this study by emphasizing the importance of the stars. Instead of studying lights, stars, and darkness ethnographically, the article examines the ideas of stars and darkness in Thierry Cohen's photographs and two of Vincent van Gogh's paintings. This article will suggest that the dark, star-filled skies represented in van Gogh's paintings provide a visual blueprint of what the article calls the “star-lit cities,” which goes beyond a simple preservation of darkness, and may be significant in driving vital changes in combating the current environmental crises.

Open access

Multidisciplinary peer-mentoring groups facilitating change?

A critical educational praxis perspective

Melina Aarnikoivu, Matti Pennanen, Johanna Kiili, and Terhi Nokkala

This article discusses the potential of multidisciplinary peer-mentoring groups to facilitate individual and institutional change. To do this, we view peer mentoring as a form of critical education praxis (Mahon et al. 2019), the purpose of which is to create a space for reflexive thinking and asking critical questions. The data were collected by interviewing all thirteen participants – doctoral students and more established scholars – of a multidisciplinary peer-mentoring pilot project. The results show a variety of both individual changes and desired changes within the university, which were brought into view as a result of the sharing of experiences, views and ideas in an open, confidential, multidisciplinary space. Based on these results, we argue that multidisciplinary peer mentoring has a high potential to offer an excellent space for collaborative, critical dialogue, which could ultimately facilitate change among individual academics, but also potentially more widely within higher education institutions.