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Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Refugees

Ideology, Morality, and Praxis

Yossi Goldstein

A prominent aspect of the Jewish-Arab conflict over Palestine has been the Palestinian ‘catastrophe’ or ‘Nakba’—the displacement of some 750,000 Palestinians during Israel’s War of Independence. David Ben-Gurion, the Yishuv’s pre-state leader and Israel’s first prime minister, was an influential figure in this process. This article investigates Ben-Gurion’s attitude toward the Palestinian refugee problem, highlighting its dynamic nature and its linkage to military developments. Contrary to the conclusions of previous research, only after the Arab states’ invasion and the war’s expansion in late May and early June 1948 did Ben-Gurion decide to oppose the refugees’ return. Undeterred by his own ethical misgivings and international efforts to secure repatriation, his view was reinforced over time, as Israel’s victories on the battlefield became unequivocal.

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Wang Zhen, Alfred Tovias, Peter Bergamin, Menachem Klein, Tally Kritzman-Amir and Pnina Peri

Aron Shai, China and Israel: Chinese, Jews; Beijing, Jerusalem (1890–2018) (Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2019), 270 pp. Hardback, $90.00. Paperback, $29.95.

Raffaella A. Del Sarto, Israel under Siege: The Politics of Insecurity and the Rise of the Israeli Neo-Revisionist Right (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2017), 298 pp. Paperback, $26.94.

Dan Tamir, Hebrew Fascism in Palestine, 1922–1942 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 210 pp. Hardback, $99.99.

Alan Dowty, Arabs and Jews in Ottoman Palestine: Two Worlds Collide (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2019), 312 pp. Hardback, $65.00.

Guy Ben-Porat and Fany Yuval, Policing Citizens: Minority Policy in Israel (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019), 250 pp. Hardback, $89.99.

Deborah Golden, Lauren Erdreich, and Sveta Roberman, Mothering, Education and Culture: Russian, Palestinian and Jewish Middle-Class Mothers in Israeli Society (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), 225 pp. Hardback, $114.25.

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M. Guadalupe Torres-Jiménez, Rene Murrieta-Galindo, Beatriz Bolívar-Cimé, Astrid Wojtarowski-Leal and M. Angeles Piñar-Álvarez

English abstract: The abuse of inorganic fertilizers in coffee agroecosystems is a worldwide problem. In central Mexico, organic fertilizers are being introduced as an alternative way to restore soil fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate coffee farmers from central Veracruz’s perceptions of bat guano as organic fertilizer. Surveys were conducted with closed and open questions followed by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Eighty-eight percent of the farmers surveyed negatively perceived bat guano. Factors influencing this perception were bats’ physical appearance, their role as disease transmitters, and the difficulties in procuring guano, including the resources needed to extract it, handle it, and transport it safely to their workplaces.

Spanish abstract: El abuso de fertilizantes inorgánicos en los agroecosistemas del café es un problema mundial. En el centro de México se comienzan a emplear fertilizantes orgánicos como alternativa para restaurar los suelos. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la percepción de los caficultores sobre el empleo del guano de murciélago como fertilizante. Se realizaron encuestas con preguntas abiertas y cerradas que se analizaron cuantitativa y cualtitativamente. El ochenta y ocho por ciento de los cafeticultores encuestados percibieron negativamente al guano de murciélago. Los factores que influyeron en esta percepción fueron: la apariencia física de los murciélagos, su rol como transmisores de enfermedades y las dificultades para adquirir el guano, incluyendo los recursos necesarios para extraerlo, manipularlo y transportarlo de manera segura a sus fincas cafetaleras.

French abstract: L’abus d’engrais inorganiques dans les agroécosystèmes de café est un problème mondial. Dans le centre du Mexique, les engrais biologiques commencent à être utilisés pour restaurer les sols. Notre recherche se proposait d’étudier la perception de l’utilisation du guano de chauve-souris comme engrais organique par les caféiculteurs. Des enquêtes semi-structurées (comprenant des questions ouvertes et fermées) ont été menées à partir de méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives. Quatrevingt-huit pour cent des agriculteurs interrogés perçoivent ce guano de manière négative. Parmi les facteurs qui influencent cette perception se trouvent l’apparence physique des chauves-souris, la transmission de maladies et les difficultés pour acquérir le guano, y compris les ressources nécessaires pour l’extraire, le manipuler et le transporter en toute sécurité vers leurs exploitations.

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Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda

Regional integration has significantly impacted sustainable development processes at the sub-national, supranational and interregional levels. Regions & Cohesion here has highlighted the complexity of interactions between policy arenas and actors/stakeholders at different levels of governance. Past articles have examined how regions can build bridges between policy arenas and levels of governance in different world regions with the objective of promoting sustainability.

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Conceptualizing sub-national regional cooperation

Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia case study

Diana Morales

English abstract: Regional cooperation is a context-dependent process that is better understood using a geographical approach; this is, accounting for the region as part of the explanation for and not only as the container in which cooperative agreements operate. The case of the Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia, a bottom-up regional cooperation process that resulted in a regional trademark, illustrates what roles are played by a diversity of local actors and how local socio-economic conditions influence cooperation agreements. The case highlights the inadequacy of inflexible jurisdictional boundaries and the limitations of preexisting categories (such as inter-municipal cooperation or metropolitan areas). The empirical evidence includes the analysis of 19 semi-structured interviews.

Spanish abstract: La cooperación regional es un proceso que depende del contexto local y regional; y una perspectiva geográfica apoya a considerar la región donde ocurre como parte de la explicación, y no como un contenedor dentro del cual operan los acuerdos. Este artículo aborda el caso del Paisaje Cultural Cafetero Colombiano, un proceso de cooperación regional de abajo hacia arriba que resultó en una marca registrada regional. El caso ilustra participantes y roles en el proceso y cómo las condiciones socioeconómicas locales influyen en los acuerdos de cooperación. Los resultados destacan la inflexibilidad de las divisiones jurisdiccionales y las limitaciones de las categorías preexistentes (como la cooperación intermunicipal o las áreas metropolitanas). La metodología incluyó el análisis de 19 entrevistas semi-estructuradas.

French abstract: Les processus de coopération régionale dépendent de leur contexte et sont mieux appréhendés à travers une approche géographique. En d’autres termes, il est nécessaire de prendre en compte la région comme partie intégrante de l’analyse, et non uniquement en tant que simple structure où les accords de coopérations se déroulent. Le cas du Paysage culturel du café de Colombie, un processus de coopération régionale du bas vers le haut qui a abouti à la création d’une marque, illustre les rôles joués par une diversité d’acteurs locaux et comment les conditions socio-économiques influencent les accords de coopération. Il met en évidence l’inadéquation des frontières juridictionnelles inflexibles et les limites des catégories préexistantes (comme la coopération inter-municipale et les aires métropolitaines). La méthodologie repose sur une étude de cas et dix-neuf entretiens semi-directifs.

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Desarrollo vs. satisfacción de necesidades básicas

Recepción de remesas en Morelos, México

Ana Melisa Pardo Montaño and Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: This article responds to the following questions: Which sociodemographic characteristics of households influence the reception of remittances in Morelos? What are the differences in household expenditure in basic needs if a household receives internal or international remittances, or if it receives none? Using the National Income and Expenditure Survey of 2016, we employed a logistic regression to examine the factors associated with the reception of remittances, and we analyzed different areas of expenditure by type of household. We present some reflection on a sending community in Morelos (Axochiapan) where we conducted 23 semi-structured interviews with people who receive remittances, who explained the main uses of these resources. We observed household characteristics that favor the reception of remittances, mainly used to satisfy basic needs.

Spanish abstract: Este artículo buscó responder: ¿qué características socio-demográficas en hogares influyen en la recepción de remesas en Morelos? y ¿cuáles son las diferencias en el gasto de los hogares respecto a sus necesidades básicas recibiendo o no remesas internas o internacionales? Utilizando la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares 2016, estimamos una regresión logística para examinar los factores asociados a la recepción de remesas y analizamos los rubros del gasto por tipo de hogar. Presentamos opiniones de una comunidad de origen en Morelos (Axochiapan), donde realizamos 23 entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas receptoras de remesas, quienes explicaron los principales usos de estos recursos. Observamos características de los hogares que favorecen la recepción de remesas, mayormente ocupadas en la satisfacción de necesidades básicas.

French abstract: Cet article pose la question suivante: quelles caractéristiques sociodémographiques des ménages influencent les transferts de fonds au Morelos? Quelles sont les différences de dépenses des ménages quant à leurs besoins fondamentaux, en fonction des transferts de fonds internes ou internationaux? A partir de l’Enquête nationale sur les revenus et dépenses de 2016, nous avons réalisé une régression logistique afin d’analyser les facteurs associés à la réception de fonds et les types de dépenses selon les ménages. Nous présentons ici les résultats concernant une communauté originaire du Morelos (Axochiapan), où nous avons effectué vingt-trois entretiens semi-structurés avec des destinataires de fonds qui ont expliqué les principales utilisations qu’ils faisaient de ces revenus. Nous en concluons les caractéristiques des ménages qui favorisent la réception des transferts de fonds, destinés principalement à satisfaire des besoins fondamentaux.

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Yoram Peri and Paul L. Scham

The crisis of liberal democracy affecting a large number of Western countries is, unsurprisingly, also manifesting itself in Israel. Yet it is noteworthy that the extensive literature describing these processes in countries where illiberal regimes have developed and populist leaders now govern, such as Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and others, does not mention Israel in this unholy list. This is the case even though in Israel in recent years one cannot but notice a relentless battle against ‘elites’, undermining the rule of law and the justice system, taking control of independent media, weakening civil and social rights organizations, narrowing civil society, and developing signs of authoritarian rule.

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Fredy B.L. Tobing and Asra Virgianita

English abstract: This article analyzes the causes of low trade relations between Indonesia and Latin American states, arguing that dynamics of international political economy have opened opportunities to increase trade relations between those countries. Having good diplomatic and political relations with similar emerging economies, like Peru and Chile, should drive closer economic relations among them. A qualitative study was conducted using literature reviews, archival analysis, and in-depth interviews. Political will and lack of knowledge pertaining to the business character of each country hamper external relations. Thus, a functional multi-track diplomacy that incorporates state and non-state actors from various fields is crucial for enhancing economic relations among these countries. Trade relations can be particularly strengthened by maximizing cooperation among actors at various levels.

Spanish abstract: Este artículo analiza las débiles relaciones comerciales entre Indonesia y América Latina, argumentando que la dinámica de la economía política abre oportunidades para mejorar estas relaciones. Las buenas relaciones diplomáticas y políticas entre Perú y Chile, debería estrechar sus relaciones económicas. Pero la escasa voluntad política y falta de conocimiento del carácter empresarial de cada país, obstaculizan sus relaciones externas. La investigación incluyó revisión de literatura, análisis de archivos y entrevistas en profundidad. Los resultados subrayan la necesidad de una diplomacia funcional de múltiples rutas que incorpore instituciones estatales y no estatales de diversos campos para mejorar las relaciones económicas. Las relaciones comerciales particularmente pueden fortalecerse entre países maximizando su recíproca cooperación en cada nivel (diplomacia multinivel).

French abstract: Cet article analyse les causes de la faiblesse des relations commerciales entre l’Indonésie et les pays d’Amérique latine en faisant valoir que la dynamique de l’économie politique internationale a ouvert des opportunités pour stimuler les relations commerciales entre ces pays. Cette étude qualitative a été menée sur la base d’une étude de la littérature existante, d’analyses archivistiques et d’entretiens approfondis. Le manque de volonté politique et surtout de connaissances réciproques des atouts commerciaux de ces pays entravent leurs relations extérieures. Ainsi, une diplomatie fonctionnelle à plusieurs voies qui intègre des diplomaties étatiques et non-étatiques dans divers domaines est-elle cruciale pour améliorer leurs relations économiques. Les relations commerciales peuvent notamment être renforcées en maximisant la coopération entre ces pays à chaque niveau (diplomatie multi-niveaux).

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"Hot Guys" in Tel Aviv

Pride Tourism in Israel

Amit Kama and Yael Ram

The LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) community is warmly embraced by the city of Tel Aviv. This phenomenon is exemplified by the fact that the Tel Aviv City Hall has been taking a leading part in the organization, financing, and promotion of Pride parades and events in recent years. The present article analyzes a quantitative survey of overseas participants in the 2016 Pride events in Tel Aviv. It explores the motivations, attitudes, satisfaction, and behaviors of tourists, both LGBTQ+ and non- LGBTQ+. The results show that Tel Aviv is perceived as gay friendly by all participants, regardless of their affiliation with the LGBTQ+ community. We discuss the advantages of being a gay-friendly city via high visibility and social inclusion. Finally, we address ‘pinkwashing’, an umbrella term employed to describe the efforts by Israeli authorities to promote a positive image of Israel despite its questioned geopolitical reputation.

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Menachem Klein

Jerusalem played an important role in the establishment of collective memory studies by Maurice Halbwachs in the early twentieth century. Recent studies in this field draw attention to the contribution of a variety of agents to building, maintaining, and challenging collective memory realms. Following suit, this article deals with the methods that agents of an alternative collective memory for Jerusalem use to challenge the Israeli hegemonic narrative. Before reviewing their activities in East and West Jerusalem and their resources and impact, I summarize the hegemonic narrative as presented in four memory realms. Special attention is given to both sides’ use of the Internet as a means of overcoming the physical limitations of memory realms.