Please submit all figures and tables in separate electronic files (clearly named and consecutively numbered) along with your article document. Figures and tables should never be imbedded within your article document.

We ask that tables and figures (drawings, photographs, charts, graphs, maps, etc.) meet certain standards before being submitted along with your article.


For optimal reproduction in print and online, figures or photographs (with no text or graphs) should be submitted as high-resolution JPEG or TIFF files. Charts, graphs, and line art created by authors are best submitted in the format in which they have been created so that the production team can adjust the text (for font and any grammatical/style guide inconsistencies) and create an EPS. Figures may be submitted in color for the online edition, but they must be fully legible in black and white for the print edition (e.g., hatch marks for lines in graphs, patterned fills for legends in maps). Options for printing in color are available for a fee to be covered by the author.

Tables must be submitted as separate, titled Word documents (not as spreadsheets).

Resolution & Size

Figures must be a minimum of 300 ppi and at least 4 x 4 inches in size. Ppi refers to the pixels per inch within an image. If a figure is less than 300 ppi, it will not be crisp and clear for print, and we will reject the image. You can check the dpi and size of a figure using the guidelines below.

Checking the ppi and size on a Mac:

  • Open your figure using “Preview.”
  • Click the “Tools” tab.
  • Click “Adjust Size.”
  • Under “Image Dimensions” you can find the size of your figure, as well as the ppi (pixels/inch).

Checking the ppi and size on a PC:

  • Right click on your figure.
  • Click on “Properties.”
  • Click on the “Summary” tab.
  • You can find the size (width and height) of your figure.
  • You can also find the ppi by looking at the “Horizontal Resolution” and “Vertical Resolution.”

In-Text Placement

Once the figures and tables are ready for submission, please ensure your article specifies where each figure or table is to be placed. This can be done by simply inserting a “callout” within the document (“insert figure 1 about here”). Additionally, the figure or table caption and any source information should also be placed with the callout.

Source & Permission

When using a figure from a source other than the author, it needs to be designated within the article, usually in the form of source caption underneath the figure. Please include all source information in in-text callouts.

Before submitting a figure, explicit permission must be obtained by the author to use it in their scholarly article. The permission status must be clearly stated (used with permission of...) in the form of an e-mail, letter, contract, etc., and submitted to the publisher along with figures.

For more details on using third-party materials in your article, please see that section here.