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Benjamin C. Fortna

, “Modernization from Empire to Republic and Education in the Process of Nationalism,” in Ottoman Past and Today’s Turkey , ed. Kemal Karpat (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 47–132. 4 Fortna, Imperial Classroom , 166–167. 5 For a synoptic appraisal of the post

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Spatial Relations and the Struggle for Space

Friedrich Ratzel’s Impact on German Education from the Wilhelmine Empire to the Third Reich

Troy Paddock

Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music—as Taught in the Common Schools from Colonial Days to 1900 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961); Eugene Weber deals with France in his Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France

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Jingyi Li

“promotes the development of the national and world economy, science and culture.” 12 Here, the EFL curriculum was established with a clear economic motivation in order to meet “the needs of our Open Door Policy and to speed up socialist modernization.” 13

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Narrating the Second World War

History Textbooks and Nation Building in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

Lina Klymenko

members of the Communist Party became victims of Stalinist repression and were deported. 88 Similarly, the textbook pays special attention to the forced modernization of Soviet industry and agriculture undertaken from 1939 to 1941 in order to strengthen

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Esilda Luku

previous curriculum (National Strategy for Pre-University Education 2004–2015), the main objective of which was to modernize the curriculum framework for first- to twelfth-year pupils and to improve the reform for the liberalization of textbook publication

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Crossdressing Dansō

Negotiating between Stereotypical Femininity and Self-expression in Patriarchal Japan

Marta Fanasca

the category of shōjo (the girl) first appeared. At that time, following interactions with the United States and European countries, the Japanese government pushed for a Western-style modernization that involved different areas such as industries

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Sakai Magara

Activist Girl of Early Twentieth Century Japan

Barbara Hartley

how the wildly inequitable distribution of material and social resources in pre-war Japan meant that modernization merely “increased the wealth and comfort of a small elite at the top” (203–204). The vast majority, including most girls, were denied