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Udo Merkel

The 2002 Soccer World Cup in Japan took place during the final

phase of the national election campaign for the German Bundestag

and managed to temporarily unite Chancellor Gerhard Schröder

(SPD) and his conservative challenger, Edmund Stoiber1. Both were

keen to demonstrate repeatedly that they were so interested in the

progress of the German team that they simultaneously interrupted or

left meetings to follow televised matches. Domestically, they support

very different soccer clubs. Stoiber is on the board of directors of the

richest German club, Bayern Munich, whose past successes, wealth

and arrogance, numerous scandals, and boardroom policies of hireand-

fire have divided the German soccer nation: they either hate or

adore the team. Schröder is a keen fan and honorary member of

Borussia Dortmund, which is closely associated with the industrial

working class in the Ruhr area. It is the only team on par with

Munich; despite its wealth, the management policies of the club

appear modest and considerate; the club continuously celebrates its

proletarian traditions and emphasizes its obligations to the local

community. Stoiber’s election manifesto did not even mention sport,

whereas the SPD’s political agenda for sport focused upon a wide

variety of issues ranging from welfare, leisure, physical education,

and health to doping, television coverage, facilities, and hosting

international events.

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Jutta A. Helm

For more than a century, Germany has had a well-balanced system

of cities showcasing considerable variety in their social and physical

make-up. It has lacked spectacular global cities like New York,

Tokyo, or London. Instead, western cities include industrial cities

like those in the Rhine-Ruhr Valley and cities shaped by universities

and research (Göttingen or Freiburg), media and publishing (Hamburg),

culture and high-technology sectors (Munich), banking and

finance (Frankfurt/Main), wholesale trade and insurance (Cologne

and Düsseldorf), as well as government and administration (Berlin,

Bonn, and most state capitals). Dramatic social or economic crises

that generate debates about urban decline have not happened.

Thanks in part to effective urban governments, no German city has

come close to the near-collapse of American rustbelt cities during

the early 1980s, or the fiscal meltdown of New York City in the

1970s. Crime has been consistently lower and less violent, and the

American racial divide has no equivalent in German cities. East German

cities, while more unevenly developed, have been no less stable.

East Berlin was the dominant center, linked to the industrial

cities in the North (Rostock) and South (Leipzig, Halle, Dresden) by

a rather creaky infrastructure.

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Issues of Gender Representation in Modern Greek Art

The Case of Thaleia Flora-Caravia's Photographic Images and Self-Portraits

Despoina Tsourgianni

Zappeion school for girls in Istanbul (1883–1888). Between 1895 and 1898 she lived in Munich, one of the most celebrated art centers of the era, where she attended private painting classes under Nikolaos Gyzis (1842–1901), 5 Nikolaos Vokos (1854–1902), 6

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Places of Progress? Technology Museums, Memory, and Education

Christian Kehrt and Daniel Brandau

technologies. Karin Königsberger has shown how societal debates on nuclear energy influenced and changed the design of the energy and physics exhibitions at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. 39 Similar challenges and conflicts can be observed when energy

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Spatial Relations and the Struggle for Space

Friedrich Ratzel’s Impact on German Education from the Wilhelmine Empire to the Third Reich

Troy Paddock

Geographie (Munich and Leipzig: Oldenbourg, 1897), 8. 13 Ibid., 4. 14 James Hunter, Perspectives on Ratzel’s Political Geography (Lanham: University Press of America, 1983). 15 Ratzel, Politische Geographie , 10. 16 Woodruff Smith, “Friedrich Ratzel and

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Shylock and the Nazis

Continuation or Reinvention?

Alessandra Bassey

Kortner, Aller Tage Abend (Munich: Kindler Verlag GmbH xsxsxs& Co. KG., 1969), 242. 8 Ibid., 241. 9 Ibid., 242. 10 Ibid., 242. 11 Peter W. Marx, ‘Max Reinhardt’, in The Routledge Companion to Directors’ Shakespeare , ed. John Russell Brown

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Dr Annette M. Boeckler

Himmel? Der jüdische Weg zu Gott . Munich : Kösel , 1976 . To Heaven with Scribes and Pharisees: The Jewish Path to God . London : Darton, Longman & Todd in association with RSGB , 1977 . With June Rose : A Taste of Heaven: Adventures in

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Florian Krobb and Dorit Müller

centuries] (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1983). 5 Bernhard Siegert, Passagiere und Papiere: Schreibakte auf der Schwelle zwischen Spanien und Amerika (1530–1600) [Passengers and papers: Writing on the threshold between Spain and America, 1530–1600] (Munich

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Germany and the United States

Whither “Partners in Leadership”?

Matthew Rhodes

of Nations, but the Dawes and Young Plans restructured reparations and channeled American bank loans to Germany in the 1920s. The subsequent axioms that the Great Depression brought the Nazis to power and that appeasement at the Munich conference

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A Clash of Civilizations?

Pegida and the Rise of Cultural Nationalism

David N. Coury

supporting diversity and multiculturalism. Moreover, as Munich’s Mayor Dieter Reiter stated, the goal is also to prevent Pegida and its supporters from creating greater divisions within Germany. 38 Many of these counter protestors view Pegida not as a