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Carl Strikwerda

argued that their country’s increasing dependence on trade and industry required a navy like Britain’s. As General Friedrich von Bernhardi claimed in 1912, “The livelihood of our working classes directly depends on the maintenance and expansion of our

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“Till I Have Done All That I Can”

An Auxiliary Nurse’s Memories of World War I

Michelle Moravec

even more valued by the “nonprofessional women” of Clarke’s class, who were invited “to do a patriotic and humane service” equal in importance to serving in the military. 41 This framing was aided by a transformation of child welfare from a benevolent

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“Such a Poor Finish”

Illegitimacy, Murder, and War Veterans in England, 1918-1923

Ginger S. Frost

this was not always possible in the working classes, and the war disrupted these expectations even more. The HO’s attitude toward Pole was also instructive. Pole’s exemplary war record and strong motive for the crime helped him secure release in the

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Pueri Sunt Pueri

Machismo, Chivalry, and the Aggressive Pastimes of the Medieval Male Youth

Sean McGlynn

within the shadows of human anger—a revelatory instance of the imaginative slippage between the human and the animal, especially between the lower classes and the uncontrollable beast.” 12 One might consider that the pastimes of peasant male youths, so

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From Villainous Letch and Sinful Outcast, to “Especially Beloved of God”

Complicating the Medieval Leper through Gender and Social Status

Christina Welch and Rohan Brown

of perceptions of the contagion. Typically a lower-class church official who “brought people before the ecclesiastical court for acts such as illicit intercourse,” 9 as Walter Curry notes, “Chaucer’s Summoner is dangerously ill, suffering from a

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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

Muslims. But, as a rule, the state restrained forcible conversion precisely to maintain stable governance and taxation across the empire. 9 Since Russia was an autocracy with no representative institutions or enfranchised social classes to provide leverage

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Cècile Mathieu

Translator : Matthew Roy

vocabulary, certain discourses and their occurrences—to a content plane—a universe expressed, cultural visions of the world, conceptual links corresponding to extensional classes.” 8 They note a bit later that “this content of content” is “poorly understood

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Elizabeth C. Macknight

published an in-depth study of the political campaign for la liberté de l’enseignement during 1830-1850. 8 At the center of Milbach’s analysis is a group of upper-class laymen from “the first generation of Catholics who invoked God and Liberty” in order

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Jules Vallès and Séverine

Romantic Socialism and the Afterlife of a Cross-Sex Friendship in French Political Culture, 1880–1929

Michael Mulvey

-American individualism, or embracing scientific socialism. Séverine later achieved celebrity as a Dreyfusard journalist, suffragist, and antiwar activist: moments when she collaborated with men and women outside artificial class-based divisions of proletarian and

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African Dawn

Keïta Fodéba and the Imagining of National Culture in Guinea

Andrew W. M. Smith

Francophile ruling class—represented the most challenging political force in the postwar colony, but also realized that the greatest danger presented by these same elites was in their allegiance shifting from France to communist powers. Thus the interaction of