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Introduction

Approaching Perpetrators

Erin Jessee

The rationale for this special section of Conflict and Society lies in anthropology’s relatively recent and steadily growing application to the study of political violence in its various manifestations, from everyday instances of subtle structural violence to more overt cases of war and mass atrocities. In the late 1990s, Carolyn Nordstrom’s (1997) work among soldiers and ordinary civilians whose lives had been intimately affected by Mozambique’s civil war and Antonius Robben’s (1996) work among survivors and perpetrators of Argentina’s Dirty War enabled an important shift among ethnographers. Whereas in the past ethnographers typically focused on violence and warfare in substate and prestate societies, Nordstrom and Robben emphasized the foundations of political violence in complex state societies. Their work led to the emergence of a small cohort of ethnographers—among them Philippe Bourgois (2003), Nancy Scheper-Hughes (1997, 2002), and Neil Whitehead (2002, 2004)—specialized in what was soon termed “the ethnography of political violence”

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The Debts of War

Bifurcated Veterans’ Mobilization and Political Order in Post-settlement El Salvador

Ralph Sprenkels

Republicana Nationalista (Republican Nationalist Alliance—ARENA), founded in 1981 by the paramilitary strongmen of the dirty war against alleged insurgents ( Arnson 2002 ) governed El Salvador until 2009, when the Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación

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Unbecoming Veteranship

Convicted Military Officers in Post-authoritarian Argentina

Eva van Roekel and Valentina Salvi

the military also changed and alternated between “just war,” “war against subversion,” “dirty war,” “nonconventional war,” “fratricidal war,” and “civil war.” One way to overcome the declining status and inarticulate position of the armed forces as

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Liminality and Missing Persons

Encountering the Missing in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina

Laura Huttunen

. Tatum , James . 2003 . The Mournes’s Song: War and Remembrance from the Iliad to Vietnam . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . Taylor , Diana . 1997 . Disappearing Acts: Spectacles of Gender and Nationalism in Argentina’s “Dirty War

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Seeking Recognition, Becoming Citizens

Achievements and Grievances among Former Combatants from Three Wars

Johanna Söderström

War II veterans] won the war, it was the Great War, they came home, they saved the war, everybody loved them, you know. When we went, we didn't win; it was a dirty war and it was political. […] Like we were you know, we were the killers and the baby

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Emergent Police States

Racialized Pacification and Police Moralism from Rio's Favelas to Bolsonaro

Tomas Salem and Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

heavily influenced by the national security doctrine and became key players in the military's “dirty war “against political opponents and subversives, adopting counterinsurgency warfare practices from the United States and elsewhere ( Cowan 2016 ). Torture