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Vichy

Beyond the Syndrome Syndrome?

Steven Ungar

Henry Rousso’s The Vichy Syndrome (1987) has changed the way many people think and write about France since 1940. Yet it is likely that the term “syndrome” (from the Greek sundromos or “running together”) in his title remains a provocation because it invokes a pattern of behavior linked to disease and abnormality By extension, it conveyed an implied accusation—perhaps even an indictment—concerning an inability on the part of France as nation and society to confront the nature of the 1940-1944 period. Among historians, debate on the data or evidence that the concept of syndrome might legitimize or even privilege with regard to the writing of history added to questions about what had prompted Rousso to level this critique against colleagues in the discipline.

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Consciousness and Digestion Sartre and Neuroscience

Hazel E. Barnes

While Sartre scholars cannot fairly be described as being opposed to science, they have, for the most part, stayed aloof. The field of psychology, of course, has been an exception. Sartre himself felt compelled to present his own existential psychoanalysis by marking the parallels and differences between his position and traditional approaches, particularly the Freudian. The same is true with respect to his concept of bad faith and of emotional behavior. Scholars have followed his lead with richly productive results. But we may note that the debate has centered on psychic and therapeutic issues, aspects of what Sartre called le vécu or lived experience, rather than on the findings of cognitive science or neuroscience. Although all existentialists and phenomenologists accept as a central tenet the fact that consciousness is embodied, there has been virtually no concern with the biological substratum. But the study of consciousness cannot be restricted within its own narrow confines—unlike, say, Greek grammar, which can be learned without reference to the rules of Arabic. At some point, there must be established an organic foundation for the behavior of the conscious organism.

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Elections

Explaining the Timing of the French Socialist Party's Gender-Based Quota

Katherine A.R. Opello

One characteristic of French political life is the small number of women holding national elective office. From 1944, when women received the vote, until the 2002 legislative elections, the percentage of female members in France’s lower house, the National Assembly, ranged from a low of 1.5 percent in 1958 to a high of 12.9 percent in 2002. Data reveal that the lowest percentage of women in the Senate, France’s upper house, was 1.4 percent in 1975 while the highest percentage was 16.9 percent in 2004. This absence of women from the highest reaches of politics is particularly striking when France is compared to other member states of the European Union. For example, currently women possess approximately 45 percent of legislative seats in Sweden, 32 percent in Germany, 28 percent in Spain and 18 percent in the United Kingdom. 1 In fact, France is often referred to as la lanterne rouge de l’Europe (Europe’s caboose) because the only other country with so few female parliamentarians is Greece.

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Book Reviews

Sarah Horton and Adrian van den Hoven

analyzed. As a result, this anthology treats Camus's works from multiple angles and truly illuminates Camus's ideas. Part One, titled “Dialogues,” has eleven chapters and flows historically to view Camus's work in light of the Ancient Greeks, Augustine

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How Can Sartrean Consciousness be Reverent?

P. Sven Arvidson

foundation.” 3 For the ancient Greeks, and for many people today, reverence is directed toward a higher being and Sartre's philosophy is atheistic. Also, reverence involves positive fellow-feeling for others, a quality of respectfulness hard to find in

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The Future of the Human Sciences

Ivan Jablonka

Translator : Nathan Bracher

. And sadly, a world without the humanities is a possibility. Who in France could have imagined, only fifty years ago, that Latin and Greek would no longer be mandatory in lycées ? Let us not allow the human sciences to perish for lack of students and

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Two Failures of Left Internationalism

Political Mimesis at French University Counter-Summits, 2010–2011

Eli Thorkelson

un travail très important ], not only for Greece, but also for the stability of the Eurozone and I would even say further that we have made a contribution to international monetary stability. It was an important day and we made the decisions that

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Demos and Nation

Misplacing the Dilemmas of the European Union--In Memory of Stanley Hoffmann

Charles S. Maier

differing speeds. Prussia and the German-speaking states of north Central Europe destroyed the imperial, then confederal frameworks of Central Europe and fused into Germany. Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria seceded from the Ottoman Empire. In Central and Eastern

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Populism and the Failures of Representation

Suzanne Berger

-educated professionals, and globally connected big business leaders. The essential dynamic in the current rage against the elite has been succinctly expressed in a single frame political cartoon that appeared first in Greece, then in France, and that now circulates

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Jablonka’s History

Literature and the Search for Truth

Sarah Fishman

contextualize his argument about writing history, Jablonka provides an overview of historical writing going back to ancient Greece. He focuses on one particular, long-standing, and continuous duality. Those who write history have long alternated between two