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“Pour Aider Nos Frères d’Espagne”

Humanitarian Aid, French Women, and Popular Mobilization during the Front Populaire

Laurence Brown

The Spanish Civil War stirred an array of humanitarian relief campaigns in France that placed women in the front lines of popular mobilization. As communists, socialists, liberals, antifascists, feminists and pacifists, French women invoked the iconography and language of sexual difference to construct pro-Republican aid appeals as an expression of gendered social concern above party politics. Through exploring the female leaderships, organization, and popular participation in different relief campaigns, this article emphasizes the extent to which Spanish aid efforts were dominated by tensions within the Front Populaire.

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Fernanda Duarte

The Transborder Immigrant Tool is a Border Disturbance Art Performance that discusses the physical and virtual limits of the U.S.–Mexico frontier. It was developed by the Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT) with the funding of the Arts and Humanities Grant 2007–2008 at the University of California in San Diego. The project uses an inexpensive GPS-enabled cell phone and a custom piece of software, the Virtual Hiker Algorithm, to guide border crossers in the desert. The crossing of the U.S.–Mexico border can be deadly due to the severe conditions of the environment; once in the Mexican desert, the software installed in the cell phone directs the immigrant toward the nearest aid site, be that water, first aid or law enforcement, along with other contextual navigational information. According to the EDT, the Transborder Immigrant Tool was created with the aim of reappropriating widely available technology to be used as a form of humanitarian aid, as well as offering a tactical intervention of distraction and disturbance in the order of transnational corridors. In addition to the navigational capabilities of the Tool, the performative effect is also provided through poetry made available on the screen of the cell phone. It is with this poetry that the artists attempt to rescue a sense of hospitality and to alleviate the difficulties of the journey.

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“Till I Have Done All That I Can”

An Auxiliary Nurse’s Memories of World War I

Michelle Moravec

France until July 1919, providing humanitarian aid to refugee children and caring for wounded soldiers as an auxiliary nurse. Clarke’s wartime experiences might have faded into obscurity, acknowledged only generally in the lines historians have penned

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Transnational Politics in Video Games

The Case of German Military Intervention in “Spec Ops: The Line”

Justin Court

United States exert pressure for increased military engagement. 37 Nevertheless, German participation in the recent fight against isis in the Middle East remained limited to ancillary support and humanitarian aid, was bound constitutionally by limited

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Eric Jennings, Hanna Diamond, Constance Pâris de Bollardière, and Jessica Lynne Pearson

services and humanitarian aid, which she argues was an equally crucial component of the Algerian independence movement’s bid for political sovereignty. Drawing on a wide range of newly available sources in French, English, and Arabic, Johnson heeds the

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Selin Çağatay, Olesya Khromeychuk, Stanimir Panayotov, Zlatina Bogdanova, Margarita Karamihova, and Angelina Vacheva

transnational Muslim networks. She discusses the impact of different types of migrations, humanitarian aid, media, and the new technologies of communication in transmitting transnational Umma-related discourses. Although Merdjanova provides a too

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Hermann Kurthen

provide humanitarian aid to victims of violence whenever possible, but should avoid “at all costs” becoming involved in military ground attacks in Libya, since the consequences and risks of this mission were not foreseeable: “Yes, I still think [ un

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Deborah Snow Molloy and Robert M. Briwa

actions designed to punish humanitarian aid. Collectively, twenty-first-century US border militarization represents state-sanctioned violence against undocumented migrants. Migrants deterred by the surveillance, walls, and barbed wire in urban areas are

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Heidi Morrison, James S. Finley, Daniel Owen Spence, Aaron Hatley, Rachael Squire, Michael Ra-shon Hall, Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin, Sibo Chen, Tawny Andersen, and Stéphanie Ponsavady

America (chapter 5), the growing prevalence of security knowledge on border management (chapter 6), and even humanitarian aid programs (chapter 7), demonstrate the interconnections between expert knowledge and biopolitical governance underscoring the

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Tuğçe Kayaal

, The Charity of War: Famine, Humanitarian Aid, and World War I in the Middle East (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2018). 26 On 23 March 1916, Celal Sahir Bey, the editor-in-chief of a prominent Istanbul-based national newspaper, Türk