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“Pour Aider Nos Frères d’Espagne”

Humanitarian Aid, French Women, and Popular Mobilization during the Front Populaire

Laurence Brown

The Spanish Civil War stirred an array of humanitarian relief campaigns in France that placed women in the front lines of popular mobilization. As communists, socialists, liberals, antifascists, feminists and pacifists, French women invoked the iconography and language of sexual difference to construct pro-Republican aid appeals as an expression of gendered social concern above party politics. Through exploring the female leaderships, organization, and popular participation in different relief campaigns, this article emphasizes the extent to which Spanish aid efforts were dominated by tensions within the Front Populaire.

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Transnational Politics in Video Games

The Case of German Military Intervention in “Spec Ops: The Line”

Justin Court

United States exert pressure for increased military engagement. 37 Nevertheless, German participation in the recent fight against isis in the Middle East remained limited to ancillary support and humanitarian aid, was bound constitutionally by limited

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Book Reviews

Eric Jennings, Hanna Diamond, Constance Pâris de Bollardière, and Jessica Lynne Pearson

services and humanitarian aid, which she argues was an equally crucial component of the Algerian independence movement’s bid for political sovereignty. Drawing on a wide range of newly available sources in French, English, and Arabic, Johnson heeds the

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German Foreign Policy Rules for Action during the 2011 Libya Crisis

Hermann Kurthen

provide humanitarian aid to victims of violence whenever possible, but should avoid “at all costs” becoming involved in military ground attacks in Libya, since the consequences and risks of this mission were not foreseeable: “Yes, I still think [ un

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Transborder Immigrant Tool

Fernanda Duarte

The Transborder Immigrant Tool is a Border Disturbance Art Performance that discusses the physical and virtual limits of the U.S.–Mexico frontier. It was developed by the Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT) with the funding of the Arts and Humanities Grant 2007–2008 at the University of California in San Diego. The project uses an inexpensive GPS-enabled cell phone and a custom piece of software, the Virtual Hiker Algorithm, to guide border crossers in the desert. The crossing of the U.S.–Mexico border can be deadly due to the severe conditions of the environment; once in the Mexican desert, the software installed in the cell phone directs the immigrant toward the nearest aid site, be that water, first aid or law enforcement, along with other contextual navigational information. According to the EDT, the Transborder Immigrant Tool was created with the aim of reappropriating widely available technology to be used as a form of humanitarian aid, as well as offering a tactical intervention of distraction and disturbance in the order of transnational corridors. In addition to the navigational capabilities of the Tool, the performative effect is also provided through poetry made available on the screen of the cell phone. It is with this poetry that the artists attempt to rescue a sense of hospitality and to alleviate the difficulties of the journey.

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Novel Reviews

Deborah Snow Molloy and Robert M. Briwa

actions designed to punish humanitarian aid. Collectively, twenty-first-century US border militarization represents state-sanctioned violence against undocumented migrants. Migrants deterred by the surveillance, walls, and barbed wire in urban areas are

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Undoing Traceable Beginnings

Citizenship and Belonging among Former Burundian Refugees in Tanzania

Patricia Daley, Ng’wanza Kamata, and Leiyo Singo

term “resident guests” or “ wageni wakazi .” However, for the wageni to access international humanitarian aid, they had to succumb to the bureaucratic label of “refugees” ( Zetter 1991 ) as the criterion for assistance. Liisa Malkki (1995) , in her

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Inertia and Reactiveness in Germany's Russia Policy

From the 2021 Federal Election to the Invasion of Ukraine in 2022

Jonas J. Driedger

German language policy well into February 2022. During a visit to Kyiv on 7 February, German Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock stated that Germany would increase economic and humanitarian aid to Ukraine and that it was willing to pay a high economic

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Giving Aid Inside the Home

Humanitarian House Visits, Performative Refugeehood, and Social Control of Syrians in Jordan

Ann-Christin Wagner

cultures of cross-border exchange and solidarity were lost when NGOs started paying local families for hosting Syrian refugees, converting hospitality as a moral duty into a short-term and commodified tool of humanitarian aid ( Carpi and Senoguz 2018

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Media Representations of Separated Child Migrants

From Dubs to Doubt

Rachel Rosen and Sarah Crafter

a study of girls moving from Zimbabwe to South Africa alone, humanitarian aid workers positioned them simultaneously as innocent and “at risk” because of their lone status but also as irresponsible and dangerous risk takers, because they “chose” to