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Carl Strikwerda

and iron ore across Western Europe. 21 Winston Churchill, not known for his starry-eyed idealism in his later career, argued in 1908 that “in spite of the folly of armaments and tariffs, of the unwisdom of so many of our political and journalistic hot

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Richard Bessel

annual homicide rates [that] is not small.” 11 By combining data on “homicide rates in five Western European regions, 1300–2000,” Eisner shows—and Pinker cites—similar declines in homicides per 100,000 people per year. 12 And when looking at what may be

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Romanticizing Difference

Identities in Transformation after World War I

Nadia Malinovich

to Paris—both on his own society and that of Western Europe. Navon, she notes, does not fall into Western bifurcations between a picturesque and ossified “Orient” and a progressive, modern “Occident.” Rather, he presents the world of the pre–World War

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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

to deploy violence in myriad ways, never approaching a steady march of decline. This messy, contingent outcome is the stuff of history. Notes 1 On state-building, see Charles Tilly and Gabriel Ardant, eds., The Formation of National States in Western

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Whitewashing History

Pinker’s (Mis)Representation of the Enlightenment and Violence

Philip Dwyer

considerations. Eventually, authorities banned public executions in Western Europe during the second half of the nineteenth century, not because they were inhumane—although that thought was certainly there—but because they no longer represented an edifying enough

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Mark S. Micale

misinterpretation. First of all, Pinker’s work exhibits an overly Western outlook. “The West and the rest” is a mentality much on display in his pages. Pinker draws the great majority of his historical data from Europe—particularly Central and Western Europe

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Envisaging Eternity

Salian Women’s Religious Patronage

Nina Verbanaz

East and West, the Salian women’s role within this patronage contains some unique aspects for eleventh-century Western Europe. Gisela and Bertha, two of the three Salian women whose sons ascended the throne, found their final resting place in the Speyer

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Misbehaving Women

Trespass and Honor in Late Medieval English Towns

Teresa Phipps

Life Cycle in Western Europe, c.1300–c.1500 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006). 41 In Latin, uxor eius , for example, “Johannes et Alicie uxor eius.” 42 In Latin, grave dampnum . CALS, ZSR 21 rot. 2. 43 Hampshire Record Office (hereafter

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Michael McGuire

thus provided a wartime template for the region’s dynamic postwar cultural demobilization. 18 Conditions Envisioned For Western Europe, World War I began in August 1914 with German invasions of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. By November, German

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Pious Women in a “Den of Scorpions”

The Piety and Patronage of the Eleventh-Century Countesses of Brittany

Amy Livingstone

Conclusion The women who became countesses of Brittany in the eleventh century brought with them relationships with kin and clergy that connected Brittany to secular and ecclesiastical developments of Western Europe. These countesses were integral to forging