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The Reform of the Public Administration: Centralization and Reorganization

Fabrizio Di Mascio and Alessandro Natalini

The modernization of the public administration has been one of the main objectives pursued by the Renzi government. What distinguishes the reform cycle launched in 2015 is the emphasis on centralization, unification, and the reduction of institutional fragmentation in the public sector after a long period in which autonomy and the organizational pluralism of administrations and government levels were enhanced. This reform strategy is consistent with the underlying trends of transformation in the political and institutional systems, in which the power of the prime minister has gradually increased. The actual impact of these reform measures, however, depends on concrete organizational instruments of subsequent implementing legislation in a context characterized by persistent spending cuts, which are necessary to maintain financial stability.

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Centralized or Decentralized

Which Governance Systems are Having a “Good” Pandemic?

Jennifer Gaskell and Gerry Stoker

four positive qualities of multilevel governance can contribute, when combined, to give greater chances of positive practical outcomes in times of crisis. Multi-level governance benefits from both centralized and decentralized capacity, mutual learning

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Pacifying the Planet

Norbert Elias on Globalization

Roger Deacon

Globalization presages an important new stage in the centuries-old 'civilizing process,' which Norbert Elias analyzed with such clarity and in such depth. At the root of the fundamental transformations of our world of nation-states are combined integrating and disintegrating tendencies, or centralization and individualization, which manifest themselves in a steady monopolization of the means of violence and taxation, an interventionist human rights discourse, and war as a means of democratizing and pacifying the planet. Elias' 'historical social psychological' approach offers new categories of analysis with which to both explain the effects of globalization and indicate how international interdependence fosters both control and resistance, both democratization and radicalization, and both integration and disintegration.

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Town-State Formations on the Edge of the Kalahari

Social-Cultura Dynamics of Centralization in Northern Tswana Kingdoms

Ørnulf Gulbrandsen

While the people of pre-colonial and colonial societies in Africa often lived in scattered, sparse settlements, the people of the Northern Tswana kingdoms (present-day Botswana) were found in large towns with thousands of residents. This is puzzling in view of their location on the edge of the Kalahari, where such concentrations would normally be least expected. Moreover, while pastoralism is generally considered antithetical to the formation of densely settled populations, cattle have featured centrally in these kingdoms' political economy. Breaking away from ecological determinism, the author argues that the role played by cattle in these societies was mediated through social and political processes that favor both state formation and large, compact settlements. The article is particularly concerned with the centripetal forces vested in the cultural and symbolic wealth of Tswana royal towns.

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The Swiss Paradox

Egalitarianism and Hierarchy in a Model Democracy

Marina Gold

a small mountain country, where people value the solidarity of village life; a confederation of independent cantons with multiple mechanisms to protect their autonomy against potentially centralizing powers of the federal government; a model of

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Émigrés and Migrations during the French Revolution

Identities, Economics, Social Exchanges, and Humanitarianism

Lloyd Kramer

state bureaucracies, mass conscription armies, centralized monetary and taxation systems, nationwide legal codes and police surveillance, carefully orchestrated public rituals, and new plans for public education. Although historians continue to debate

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Contemporary Megaprojects

An Introduction

Seth Schindler, Simin Fadaee, and Dan Brockington

separates them from high modernist schemes that imbued states and planners with omnipotence to “see” and manipulate their environments ( Scott 1998 ). The centralized nature of planning in the postwar era imposed limits on what could be envisioned and

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Indigenous participation in primary care services in Brazil

Autonomy or bureaucratization?

Eliana Elisabeth Diehl and Esther Jean Langdon

expected of such councils that were to oversee planning, administration, operation and evaluation. Another aspect that emphasized centralization was the lack of communication between CONDISI Insul and the local councils, a problem recognized by Indigenous

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The Politics of Greening the City

The Case of the Bostan of Kuzguncuk, Istanbul

Alice Genoud

centralized power of Istanbul imposed its vision of the city without any consultation, creating tensions and demonstrations, which for example brought about the events in Gezi. In this context of massive urban renewal, green spaces, and above all urban

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Sephardi Leadership in Israel

Transitioning from Mandate to Statehood

Moshe Naor

.g., Jacobson and Naor 2016 ). As I will argue in this article, the centralized power of the state and the process led by Mapai, in the name of statism ( mamlachtiut ), to dismantle secondary centers of authority ( Bareli 1999 ; Horowitz and Lissak 1977