Recognition of a right of resistance to oppression clearly helped modern Western polities accept constitutional forms of order. Drawing on Locke's canonical discussion in the Second Treatise, influential Anglo-American political theorists also suggest that the establishment of modern constitutional states required outlawing resistance practices. A francophone perspective, however, raises a problem for such generalizations about modern Western political philosophy and practice: the French “résistance” differs in meaning from the English “resistance” in important ways. Reconstructing the histories of the cognate concepts, I show that “résistance” emerged out of feminized discourses concerning moral conscience and that, as a result, excluding résistance from politics seems implausible, a conclusion that sheds light on the discussion of résistance in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The article closes with the suggestion that, following the Second World War, French understandings of “résistance” may have influenced American politics and thought in unrecognized ways.
A History of the Concept of Separation of Church and State in the Netherlands
privileges, based on the principles of the revolution that had been put down in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1795. The decree stated that the principles of liberty and equality were in conflict with a “ruling or privileged Church
Elizabeth C. Macknight
primary schools that were not public establishments. 6 The principle of la liberté de l’enseignement is fundamental to the modern French system of education, for it relates closely to article 10 of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen