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American and British Efforts to Democratize Schoolbooks in Occupied Italy and Germany from 1943 to 1949

Daniela R. P. Weiner

Abstract

During the Allied occupation of the Axis countries, education and the revision of educational materials were seen as a means of ensuring future peace in Europe. Most scholarly literature on this topic has focused on the German case or has engaged in a German-Japanese comparison, neglecting the country in which the textbook revision process was first pioneered: Italy. Drawing primarily on the papers of the Allied occupying military governments, this article explores the parallels between the textbook revision processes in Allied-occupied Italy and Germany. It argues that, for the Allied occupiers involved in reeducation in Italy and Germany, the reeducation processes in these countries were inextricably linked. Furthermore, the institutional learning process that occurred in occupied Italy enabled the more thorough approach later applied in Germany.

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Weapons of Mass Instruction

Schoolbooks and Democratization in Multiethnic Central Europe

Charles Ingrao

History schoolbooks are part of a much broader legitimation process through which every society's ruling elite secures the uncritical acceptance of the existing political, social and economic system, together with the cultural attributes that re ect its hegemony. In central Europe, the need to justify the creation of nation-states at the beginning and end of the twentieth century has generated proprietary accounts that have pitted the region's national groups against one another. Post-communist democratization has intensi ed these divisions as political leaders feel obliged to employ hoary myths—and avoid inconvenient facts— about their country's history in order to survive the electoral process. In this way they succumb to the "Frankenstein Syndrome" by which the history taught in the schools destroys those who dare to challenge the arti cial constructs of the past. The article surveys history teaching throughout central Europe, with special emphasis on the Yugoslav successor states.

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Muslims in Catalonian Textbooks

Lluís Samper Rasero and Jordi Garreta Bochaca

Textbooks are basic elements that shape the school curriculum. Despite the democratization and decentralization of the Spanish educational system, a certain ideological inertia and bias with respect to their contents and focus persists. The study presented here is based on an empirical analysis of the contents of 264 books used at the primary (6-11 years), secondary (12-14 years) and baccalaureate (15-16 years) levels. The results point to the existence of an "unstated" curriculum, where only brief mention of Islam, Arabs and Muslims, and their presence in Spain predominate. These are usually accompanied by images - for cognitive support - that serve to maintain an exotic, anti-modern, anti-Western and, in other words, an "Orientalist" image of this group.

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Introduction

Textbooks in Periods of Political Transition after the Second World War

Kira Mahamud Angulo and Anna Ascenzi

the economic, social, educational, and political spheres of society often become desynchronized. A similar approach to this process is provided in Daniel Ziblatt’s description of nineteenth century democratization as “an asynchronic dynamic in which

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An Educationally Sound Experiment?

The Ohio School of the Air, 1928–1937

Nathan R. Myers

Darrow viewed radio education as having a two-fold purpose: democratization and cultural/social uplift. The radio, according to Darrow, was a kind of great leveler, offering “the first effective method of reaching a large group of people who have not

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History Teaching and Cultural Hegemony

Representations of the Spanish Civil War in Francoist History Textbooks of the 1960s

Johanna Fricke

. 12 In the 1960s, the Francoists thus had to contend with both Spain's poor economic situation and demands for democratization, peace, and reconciliation by oppositional forces and Spanish society at large. At the same time, they also had to convince a

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Introduction

Educational Films: A Historical Review of Media Innovation in Schools

Eckhardt Fuchs, Anne Bruch, and Michael Annegarn-Gläß

Translator : Nicola Watson

This organization continues to produce educational films for the whole of Germany today. The use of educational films continued after 1945. They played a central role in re-education and democratization programs run by the Allies in the western

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Disability, Girlhood, and Vulnerability in Transnational Contexts

Nirmala Erevelles and Xuan Thuy Nguyen

girls to construct counter discourses that support democratizing approaches to theory and praxis at the intersections of disability and girlhood. In this section, we, therefore, trace the historical emergence of disabled girlhood in the context of global

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Girls with Disabilities in the Global South

Rethinking the Politics of Engagement

Xuan Thuy Nguyen

“decolonizing and democratizing approach” ( Nguyen and Mitchell 2014, 11 ) made the discrete, albeit sometimes shared, experiences of individual disabled girls visible and thus enabled us to understand inclusion and exclusion from the disabled girls

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Working with the Cold War

Types of Knowledge in Swedish and Australian History Textbook Activities

Niklas Ammert and Heather Sharp

Democratization, the post-war period and globalization, from around 1900 to the present” covers the period from 1945 and stipulates that pupils in year nine (ages fifteen to sixteen) encounter “Cold War conflicts, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and new