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Democratization of Perpetration

Human Rights, Transitional Justice, and Memories of Resistance in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste

Amy Rothschild

This article examines the effects of human rights and transitional justice on memories of Timor-Leste’s resistance to the Indonesian occupation, which lasted from 1975 to 1999. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork in Timor, centered around remembrance of two major acts of resistance: an armed uprising in 1983 and a peaceful demonstration in 1991. The article argues that in Timor, an “apolitical” human rights has caused a post-conflict “democratization of perpetration”, in that similar culpability is assigned to all those who caused suffering in the conflict with Indonesia through physical violence, irrespective of context. Transitional justice has thus expanded the category of perpetrator in Timor, to include some who legally used armed resistance against Indonesian rule. Studies of violence have belatedly turned toward examining perpetrators of state terror; this article examines how discourses of human rights and transitional justice shape perceptions of those who resist state terror with violence.

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Space of Hope for Lebanon’s Missing

Promoting Transitional Justice through a Digital Memorial

Erik Van Ommering and Reem el Soussi

, singular views of either collective memory or homogeneous nationhood no longer hold in today’s mobile and dynamic world ( Josias 2011: 95 ). Hence, scholars have argued for a decolonization and democratization of archiving practices, granting nonstate

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Palestine

A Protracted Peacebuilding Process

Emile Badarin

democratization. This process is predominantly articulated in expressions of security, and through business and market activities that obscure alternatives and alienate issues of social justice, equality, and human rights. As a result, land was spatially and

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Introduction

War Veterans and the Construction of Citizenship Categories

Nikkie Wiegink, Ralph Sprenkels, and Birgitte Refslund Sørensen

Söderberg Kovacs , Mimmi , and Sophie Hatz . 2016 . “ Rebel-to-Party Transformations in Civil War Peace Processes 1975–2011 .” Democratization 23 ( 6 ): 990 – 1008 . https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2016.1159558 . 10

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The Debts of War

Bifurcated Veterans’ Mobilization and Political Order in Post-settlement El Salvador

Ralph Sprenkels

Kovacs , Mimmie , and Sophia Hatz . 2016 . “ Rebel-to-Party Transformations in Civil War Peace Processes 1975–2011 .” Democratization 23 ( 6 ): 990 – 1008 . https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2016.1159558 . 10

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Fighting Fire with Fire

Resistance to Transitional Justice in Bahrain

Ciara O’Loughlin

regimes. Jack Snyder and Leslie Vinjamuri (2003/2004: 33 ) have also noted that truth commissions can provide “a veneer of legitimacy for governments that actually shun democratization and the rule of law.” In such scenarios, ironically, resistance to

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Moral Thresholds of Outrage

The March for Hrant Dink and New Ways of Mobilization in Turkey

Lorenzo D’Orsi

July 2006, cited in Rosati 2015: 222 ). The impact of his assassination should also be assessed in relation to the broad expectations of democratization of the 2000s. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the years of the “totalitarian democracy” ( Navaro

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Adopting a Resistance Lens

An Exploration of Power and Legitimacy in Transitional Justice

Julie Bernath and Sandra Rubli

-004-0694-5 Huntington , Samuel . 1991 . The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century . Norman : University of Oklahoma Press . Hurd , Ian . 1999 . “ Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics .” International Organization 53 , no. 2

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“Eyes, Ears, and Wheels”

Policing Partnerships in Nairobi, Kenya

Francesco Colona and Tessa Diphoorn

Press . 10.3138/9781442681873 Ruteere , Mutuma , and Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle . 2003 . “ Democratizing Security or Decentralizing Repression? The Ambiguities of Community Policing in Kenya .” African Affairs 102 ( 409 ): 587 – 604 . 10

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Liberation Autochthony

Namibian Veteran Politics and African Citizenship Claims

Lalli Metsola

crises, liberalization packages, retreat of the state, and political democratization put heavy pressures on the chains of centralized accumulation and redistribution through which many postcolonial states had operated ( Young 2004 ). This led to increased