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Democratization of Perpetration

Human Rights, Transitional Justice, and Memories of Resistance in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste

Amy Rothschild

This article examines the effects of human rights and transitional justice on memories of Timor-Leste’s resistance to the Indonesian occupation, which lasted from 1975 to 1999. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork in Timor, centered around remembrance of two major acts of resistance: an armed uprising in 1983 and a peaceful demonstration in 1991. The article argues that in Timor, an “apolitical” human rights has caused a post-conflict “democratization of perpetration”, in that similar culpability is assigned to all those who caused suffering in the conflict with Indonesia through physical violence, irrespective of context. Transitional justice has thus expanded the category of perpetrator in Timor, to include some who legally used armed resistance against Indonesian rule. Studies of violence have belatedly turned toward examining perpetrators of state terror; this article examines how discourses of human rights and transitional justice shape perceptions of those who resist state terror with violence.

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Democratizing Party Leadership Selection in Israel: A Balance Sheet

Ofer Kenig

The selection methods of party leaders in Israel have gone through a gradual shift during the last 30 years. Like parties in several other democracies (Canada, United Kingdom, Japan), the major Israeli parties have changed their internal distribution of power to give their members a role in candidate and leadership selection. In Israel, as elsewhere, among the reasons for this reform was the desire to reduce the oligarchic tendencies of parties by creating a participatory revolution and by providing the rank-and-file members a chance to make a difference. This study maps the various methods used by Israeli parties for selecting their leaders and asks what the positive and negative consequences of the opening of the selection process are. The first section presents the various methods used by parties for selecting their leaders. The following three sections deal with the gradual process of democratization in leadership selection that occurred in the two major Israeli parties, and in other parties. The final section discusses the consequences of this democratization and tries to assess whether there is an ideal method for selecting party leaders.

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Whither the people in the ASEAN Community?

Prospects in regional community building above and below the state

See Seng Tan

-building aims and efforts in at least three areas—disaster management, development, and democratization (understood below as human rights)—is of interest here. While the declared objective of a people-focused regionalism receives the most attention in the socio

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El continuum contestatario en los países árabes

movimientos sociales, sociedad civil y ciudadanía

Isaías Barreñada Bajo

*Full article is in Spanish

English abstract: The popular demonstrations triggered by the so-called Arab Spring can be explained by a combination of the multiple reasons of political, social, cultural, and economic orders. But previous mobilizations become relevant as a precedent to the Arab Spring protests given their scope; in several countries in recent years, an unusual intensification of the protest was experienced. The massive character of the protests would not have been possible without the intervention of certain experienced actors that served as catalysts and facilitators of these dynamics. Regardless of their achievements and singularities, the 2011 demonstrations have to be regarded as part of a protest continuum, being the inheritors of previous resistance, and protest movements, as well as of preceding organizational experiences and constituting a turning point in collective action. This continuum goes on.

Spanish abstract: Las movilizaciones populares que desencadenaron las llamadas “primaveras árabes“ se explican por la combinación de múltiples razones de orden político, social, cultural y económico. Pero las dimensiones adquiridas por las protestas ponen de relieve cómo éstas tenían antecedentes; en varios países en los últimos años se vivió una intensificación inusitada de la contestación. El carácter masivo de las protestas no hubiera sido posible sin la intervención de determinados actores que contaban con experiencia y que lograron actuar como catalizadores y facilitadores de esta dinámica. Independientemente de sus logros y de sus singularidades nacionales, las manifestaciones del 2011 se inscribieron así en un continuum contestatario, siendo herederas de experiencias de resistencia, protesta y organización previas, y constituyeron un punto de inflexión en el proceso. Este continuum prosigue en las transiciones políticas en curso.

French abstract: Les mobilisations populaires déclenchées par les dénommés “printemps arabes“ s'expliquent par la combinaison de multiples raisons d'ordre politique, social, culturel et économique. Mais les dimensions atteintes par les protestations mettent en relief leurs antécédents; dans plusieurs pays, durant ces dernières années, a eu lieu une intensification inusitée de la contestation. Le caractère massif des protestations n'aurait été atteint sans l'intervention de certains acteurs qui comptaient avec de l'expérience y qui purent jouer un rôle de catalyseurs et de facilitateurs de ce e dynamique. Indépendamment de leurs réussites et de leurs singularités nationales, les manifestations de 2011 se sont ainsi inscrites dans un continuum contestataire, étant héritières d'expériences de résistance, de protestation et d'organisations antérieures, et elles constituèrent un moment d'inflexion dans le processus. Ce continuum se prolonge dans les transitions politiques en cour.

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Ten years later

Leonardo Morlino

A decade ago, Regions & Cohesion started with an editorial article by Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda, who proposed launching “a multilingual (English, French, and Spanish) and interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of the human and environmental impacts of regional integration as well as governance processes.”

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Bringing Politics Back In

Embedded Neoliberalism in Israel during Rabin's Second Government

Arie Krampf, Uri Ansenberg, and Barak Zur

Social protection and redistribution (3) Redistributive policies for households (4) Developmental policies for firms Political sphere (5) Depoliticization (6) Democratization and participation ‘Supply-side reforms’ capture

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Innovations in Israel’s Civics Textbooks

Enlightening Trends in Non-Western Democracies

Sigal Ben-Rafael Galanti, Paz Carmel, and Alon Levkowitz

increasing globalization, civics education can encourage aspirations for a more democratic global order. Events and processes such as Eastern European democratization and mass immigration have cast light on the importance of civics. Similarly, beyond

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Book Reviews

Yehuda Bar Shalom, Educating Israel: Educational Entrepreneurship in Israel’s Multicultural Society Review by Yehuda Jacobson and Diana Luzzatto

James Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War Review by Ziva Flamhaft

Sharon Lang, Sharaf Politics: Honor and Peacemaking in Israeli-Palestinian Society Review by Madelaine Adelman

Ussama Makdisi and Paul A. Silverstein, eds., Memory and Violence in the Middle East and North Africa Review by Vered Vinitzky-Seroussi

Assaf Meydani and Shlomo Mizrahi, Public Policy between Society and Law: The Supreme Court, Political Participation, and Policy Making Review by Guy Seidman

Ilan Peleg, Democratizing the Hegemonic State: Political Transformation in the Age of Identity Review by William Safran

Alon Tal, Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel Review by Oren Perez

David A. Wesley, State Practices and Zionist Images: Shaping Economic Development in Arab Towns in Israel Review by Dan Bavly

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Party Membership in Israel

An Overview

Ofer Kenig, Michael Philippov, and Gideon Rahat

Party membership is in decline in Israel. This article analyzes the main characteristics of party members in three of the largest parties in Israel: Kadima, Likud, and Labor. Party members in Israel share similar features with party members in other countries: they are older, economically better off than the average voter, they are more highly educated than an average voter, and they are more likely to be male than female. This comparison between the members population and the voters population also demonstrates that Arabs are over-represented in Kadima and Labor while religious people are over-represented in Kadima and especially Likud. Most party members claim that ideological motivations led them to join a particular party, yet they suspect that the other members are motivated by more instrumental reasons. They expect the party to act cohesively but at the same time clearly support deeper intraparty democratization. They are also rather passive, hardly engaging in party activities.

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Innovation in Israel

Between Politics, Society, and Culture

Sigal Ben-Rafael Galanti, Fany Yuval, and Assaf Meydani

democratization, such innovation may also, intentionally or not, encourage manifestations of populism and de-democratization. In that context, Israel is an arena where innovation, whether planned or spontaneous, is always happening in reaction to a whole scope