ecological issues play in them, reflecting a growing preoccupation of Israeli society and culture with the environment. 1 These novels combine national threats with ecological dangers, thus following current American literature and cinema. Whereas the
From National Catastrophes to Ecological Disasters
Netta Bar Yosef-Paz
Ecology and Migration in the Middle East
, migration, short-term displacement to coping in adapting to new or changed environment. When humans leave their abodes, their integration in a new environment will entail a time for struggle, a challenge. In this issue of Anthropology of the Middle East
Between Predation and Protection
Forests and Forestry in Late Tsarist Primor'e
This article investigates the interaction between late imperial Russian colonization in Primor'e and the region's forest environments. Drawing on the records of administrators concerned with resettlement, as well as naturalists, travelers, and other contemporary observers, the article shows that Russian settlement, together with migration from China and Korea, had evident effects on Primor'e's taiga, but these changes were also accompanied by the emergence of widespread conservationist sentiment. The article argues that both increased exploitation of forests as well as conservation ultimately derived from the desire to project Russian imperial power. Settlement, which had many consequences for the natural world, was primarily a means to hold the territory against competitors. Conservation measures focused on limiting the actions of East Asian migrants and peasant settlers, as their role in deforestation seemed to impede the success of colonization. To conserve forest resources and ensure long-term growth, officials advocated rational exploitation through industrial timbering paired with state oversight, both of which were intended to fulfill the broader goal of securing imperial power in the Far East.
Designing and implementing their own future
Grassroots efforts among the Maya of Guatemala
Allison D. Krogstad
In the Kaqchikel Maya town of San Jorge La Laguna, Guatemala, a fight to reclaim lost land in 1992, though unsuccessful, eventually led the community to become one of the first Maya towns on Lake Atitlán to have a garbage dump, a drainage system, and an environmental education agenda. The efforts of San Jorge, along with the efforts of other communities, have led to the creation of national organizations such as Coordinadora Nacional Indígena y Campesina (CONIC), and have attracted the a ention of foreigners with organizations such as Mayan Families. By striving to improve their immediate environment and learning about the global impact of their actions, the people of San Jorge La Laguna are providing both a physical and an ideological space for themselves in the future.
family who live at a distance, or gathering resources from the environment. The framework I used to analyze mobility has two categories: economic (costs vs. benefits) and conditions (opportunities vs. constraints). This framework focuses on economic and
Les services environnementaux fournis par l’agriculture et leurs modes de gouvernance
Un cadre d’analyse économique
Philippe Jeanneaux, Olivier Aznar, and Christophe Déprés
*Full article is in French
English abstract: This paper proposes to analyze the environmental services provided by farmers in order to clarify the diversity of transactions within the same field. We distinguish two main categories of services: “Service internalization“ corresponding to the internalization of an externality by seeking to modify the joint product, and “Service Delivery“ corresponding to a contract to provide the service. We then cross this characterization with the modes of governance (sectorial vs. territorial) of the environmental services. This analysis allows us, first, to have a better understanding of the dynamics of environmental service supply, and second, to highlight the poor integration of environmental issues in agriculture. The categories generated are illustrated from several empirical studies carried out between 2002 and 2010 in the framework of three research programs.
Spanish abstract: Este documento propone caracterizar los servicios ambientales provistos por los agricultores con el fin de clarificar la diversidad de transacciones dentro de la misma denominación. El artículo distingue dos categorías principales de servicios: “la internalización de servicios“ correspondiente a la internalización de una externalidad a través de modificar el producto conjunto, y “la prestación de servicios“ que corresponde a un contrato de prestación de servicio. Los autores cruzan entonces esta caracterización con los modos de gobierno (sectorial vs. territorial) en el que los servicios ambientales se inscriben; cruce que permite, por un lado, comprender la dinámica de la oferta de servicios ambientales, y por otra parte, remarcar la escasa integración de los problemas ambientales en el sector agrícola. Las categorías producidas son ilustradas a partir de varias investigaciones empíricas llevadas a cabo entre 2002 y 2010 en tres programas de investigación.
French abstract: Cet article propose de caractériser les services environnementaux fournis par les agriculteurs dans le but de clarifier la diversité des transactions qui relèvent d'une même dénomination. Deux catégories principales de services avec quelques déclinaisons ressortent : le « service d'internalisation » visant à internaliser une externalité en cherchant à modifier le produit joint ; le « service prestation » correspondant à un contrat de prestation de service. Nous croisons alors cette caractérisation avec les modes de gouvernance (sectorielle vs territoriale) dans lesquels les services environnementaux s'inscrivent, croisement qui permet, d'une part, de comprendre les dynamiques d'off re de services environnementaux, et d'autre part, de remarquer la faible intégration des problèmes environnementaux dans le secteur agricole. Les catégories produites sont illustrées à partir de plusieurs investigations empiriques réalisées entre 2002 et 2010 dans trois programmes de recherche.
Land, Nation and Tourist
Moral Reckoning in Post-GFC Iceland
Mary Hawkins and Helena Onnudottir
Land is central to Icelandic identity. It is birthright, heritage, a site of memory and belonging; mountains and fjords are the stuff on which Icelandic dreams are made. Land is made culture through story and song, told at family gatherings, and sung at schools and on hiking trips. Icelandic identity was built on this imagining, coupled to a vision of Icelanders as an exceptional people, a Viking race. The events of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), which exposed institutional corruption, caused many Icelanders to doubt the Viking image. At the same time, Iceland has been invaded by tourists. This article, based on participant observation, a survey and interviews, argues that one significant effect of the post-GFC foreign invasion has been a transformation of the cultural and moral order in Iceland, away from the boasting Viking and towards a new set of values within which land and nature occupy an even more central place.
An Environmentally Literate Explorer
A. E. Nordenskiöld’s Three Expeditions to the North Asian Coast, 1875–1879
Seija A. Niemi
whole North Asian coast ( Ramsay 1953: 156–158 ; Andersson 1901: 20 ; Nordenskiöld 1876: 3 ; 1881a: 17–19 ). I think that the concept of environmental literacy also includes the ability to deal with the environment in a practical and rational manner
peoples in the Northern Hemisphere, a common intimate relationship with forces in the environment more powerful than humans, often expressed symbolically in relationships with the brown bear Ursus arctos . In addition, the book portrays the challenges
the globe about questions cutting across region, language, and culture to portray the experiences of Indigenous peoples from similar physical and colonial environments. It thus seeks to introduce Indigenous peoples from present-day Canada to an