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Introduction: The French Empire and the History of Economic Life

Owen White and Elizabeth Heath

Grasse perfumers pursued opportunities presented by the wider market requires attending to the economic structures and markets that facilitated—or hindered—these exchanges. Large-scale infrastructural projects, technology, financial institutions, and

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Le “système” Minjoz au prisme de la politique sportive municipale de Besançon (1945-1959)

un gouvernement de compromis particulier

Jean-François Loudcher

From 1945 to 1947, and then again from 1953 to 1977, Jean Minjoz served as mayor of Besançon and set up a “system” of government that allowed him to maintain power while insuring the development of the city. What was that system and how did it develop? By examining the sports politics of the city, this article reveals how the municipal sports commission and the city council worked out a subtle balance between amateur sports and the promotion of professional soccer. The political, professional, and athletic implications of this approach led representatives of the big clubs as well as the local councillors to support a basic minimum level of sports infrastructure, which in turn enabled the mayor to realize his own agenda for the city's social development program and to assure him the vote of his electorate. This politics of compromise can be categorized as republican elitist.

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Objects of Dispute

Planning, Discourse, and State Power in Post-War France

Edward Welch

major infrastructure projects, including a new international airport to the north of the city at Roissy, a system of autoroutes , and a new rapid transport system, the RER, connecting the New Towns to Paris and each other. Historian Rosemary Wakeman

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A Response to ‘Counter-violence and Terrorism’

Deborah Evans

. However, this does not preclude cross-civilisational financial and economic cooperation as testified by, for example, fast-growing investment in building infrastructure and education in the West by the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The jihadist

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Manufacturing a Multifunctional Countryside

Operational Landscapes, Urban Desire, and the French State, 1945–1976

Venus Bivar

understood themselves as victims of professional burnout and industrial pollution is of secondary importance. What matters is that this is how the state and developers imagined them, and it was this imaginary that justified the expansion of infrastructure for

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Book Reviews

Paul Jankowski, Clifford Rosenberg, and Rebecca Pulju

information on the wider context. More discussion, for example, of how the wartime destruction of French infrastructure affected the decisions about credit that Trumbull details would be helpful. Despite this, his work will be important to historians of France

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Mercer Cook and the Origins of Black French Studies

Félix Germain

Herskovits’ contributions were to the study of African diaspora, it is important to recognize that vibrant intellectual infrastructure focusing on African-American culture, history, and society had already taken root in the United States. This infrastructure

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Memorial

Allan Mitchell, 1933—2016

Volker Berghahn

: As far as its infrastructure was concerned, Imperial Germany had won the strategic train race by 1914. And yet “despite their economic prowess in Central Europe and the commercial integration of their railroads on the Continent, German commanders felt

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Book Reviews

Eric Jennings, Hanna Diamond, Constance Pâris de Bollardière, and Jessica Lynne Pearson

Algerians by building houses and schools, improving infrastructure, and providing work opportunities for underemployed Algerians. The medical component of the program provided vaccines, trained rural medical personnel, and offered free health consultations

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Administering Vaccination in Interwar Algeria

Medical Auxiliaries, Smallpox, and the Colonial State in the Communes mixtes

Hannah-Louise Clark

communes de plein exercice . 12 Colonial infrastructure and investment were concentrated in these areas, which were administered along metropolitan lines. The majority of the autochthonous population—three-fifths of the Muslim population in the interwar