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John Carmichael's Journey from Aleppo to Basra (1754)

A Pluralized View of the Enlightenment Discourse of Improvement

Mohammad Sakhnini

This article shows how the Enlightenment notion of improvement in a cross-cultural context cannot be one of constant polarization. Without ever travelling to the Middle East, the Scottish Enlightenment literati proposed that the Middle East is backward and primitive in its economic and material infrastructure. Europe is progressing while the Middle East remained stuck in ancient times. John Carmichael could not escape the European repository of knowledge about the Orient. In his “Journey from Aleppo to Basra” (1754), he sometimes considered Arabs are irrational, backward and primitive. Yet the conditions of traveling in an Arab caravan invited him to interact with the people he encountered. He socialized and exchanged services with the Arabs. At the same time he learned how modern progress needs not be looked at as one of complete banishment of ancient rituals and traditions from the past. The journey in the Middle East has its educational effects.

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Bourdieu in Translation Studies: The Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Shakespeare Translation in Egypt

Nahrain al-Mousawi

emergence of a (state-supported) theatre infrastructure and an increase in theatre production. The debates between drama critics revolved around the quality of translation for theatre, as opposed to other media and platforms. Hanna cites Jalāl al

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A Response to ‘Counter-violence and Terrorism’

Deborah Evans

. However, this does not preclude cross-civilisational financial and economic cooperation as testified by, for example, fast-growing investment in building infrastructure and education in the West by the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The jihadist

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Mediating the Rural Ideal

The Australian Town in Twentieth-Century Travel

Louise Prowse

cultural shifts; its primary function is to reflect rather than drive changes in representing rural tourism. Second, travel media works to focus the tourist’s gaze, placing increased emphasis on rural infrastructure or place identity. Consequently, the

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The Continent Behind

Alienation and the American Scene in George William Curtis’s Lotus-Eating: A Summer Book

James Weaver

mediated by the presence of the mill-dam, the bar-room, and the larger hotel. While Curtis evidences some misgivings about this tourist infrastructure and its potential for separating the individual from the natural world, he ultimately views these luxuries

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“I Was Not Willing to Risk my Hajj”

Information Coping Strategies of Hajj Pilgrims

Nadia Caidi

Operators as Gatekeepers As the number of pilgrims to Hajj steadily increased over time (resulting in strain on the infrastructure), the Saudi Ministry of Hajj along with the Organization of Islamic Conference introduced a system of quotas for each country

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Art and Death in French Photographs of Ruins, 1914–1918

Nicole Hudgins

contends, however, that the anthropomorphic language of ruins was also linked to the determination in France to restore national infrastructure and private property to “normalcy”—that is, to prewar order and appearance. Unable to reverse the human

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Book Reviews

Jackie Clarke, Melanie Kay Smith, Margret Jäger, Anne O’Connor, and Robert Shepherd

shown to be a continuation of nineteenth-century discourses on travel. This book is an important contribution to the study of the massification of tourism at a time of technological, infrastructural, and social change in Irish society. Charting a range

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Organized Freedom and Progressive Reflection

Cameron Bassiri

organization, lacked the capacity for sustained, concerted action because they lacked an adequate infrastructure. If long-term goals are going to be capable of being realized, then the action of the individuals must be organized, and, as we will see, the

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[I] ‘did write this Wyll with my own hand’

Simulation and Dissimulation in Isabella Whitney’s ‘Wyll and Testament’

Vassiliki Markidou

is firmly committed to economic values and extreme commercialisation, hence driving its lower-class citizens to extinction. That is to say, the individual in the English capital is undermined as the poem stresses a plethora of infrastructures