This article examines British attitudes to motorway construction during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, stressing the importance of international events to Britain's motorway building policy. It shows that while national social, political and economic imperatives, movements, and contexts were clearly of primary importance in debates about motorway construction in Britain, these often emerged amidst discussions about road-building developments abroad, particularly in mainland Europe and North America. The article focuses on British reactions to the construction of the German National Socialist Party's Autobahnen in the 1930s, examining how the Autobahnen became embroiled in a spectacular propagandist performance of the modern German nation. Finally, the paper examines the attention paid to European and U.S. motorways in postwar Britain, as engineers, landscape architects, designers, and civil servants undertook research to help inform their plans and designs for British motorways.
Britain and "the Motorway Club
The Effect of European and North American Motorway Construction on Attitudes in Britain, 1930-1960
GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN, MOTORWAYS, NATIONALISM, and TRANSPORT
By the mid-nineteenth century, the territory of present-day Argentina was still a sparsely settled network of towns beyond which lived some native peoples. In 1860 the incomplete Martin de Moussy survey estimated a total population of about 1 million inhabitants; a decade later the first national census recorded about 1.8 million. Halperin Donghi summarizes the situation in “A Nation for the Argentine Desert,” the prologue to his classic work about this period.1 At that time, the country lacked roads, and the traditional transport system, as Enrique M. Barba describes in a pioneering book, consisted of cart tracks that were impassable during the rainy season, and some staging posts that provided rudimentary services for long-distances travelers.2 Indigenous trails trodden by livestock, called rastrilladas, supplemented them.3 Years later, Cristian Werckenthie studied the traditional transport of the pampas. Bullock carts were the principal means of transport; elsewhere, mule trains were the norm.
Marielle Stigum Gleiss and Weiqiang Lin
Historical research has recently found new interest in aviation and aeromobilities. Though productive, these discussions have mostly concentrated on knowledge frames emanating from the 'West.' This article surveys the limited range of literatures that highlight how 'other' societies perceive and (re)appropriate flight. In particular, we refer to examples from Asia to demonstrate that actors from this region likewise interact with ideas of aerial imperialism, geopolitical struggles, and nationalism. These studies prompt key historiographical questions on power, agency, and relations between the West and the non-West. They also promote a scholarship that is more reflexive about its centers of knowledge.
This article examines the Cuban mobile cinema campaign in the 1960s as a case study for thinking about the relationship between cinema and mobility. I examine the rhetoric around mobile cinema in Cuban journals such as Cine Cubano, and in the documentary film Por primera vez (For the first time, 1967). I argue that cinema is linked with mobility in two primary ways: as a virtual mobility stimulated by onscreen images, and as a more literal mobility expressed by the transportation of film into remote rural sites of exhibition. These two kinds of mobility reflect the hopes and ambitions of filmmakers and critics energized by the resurgent nationalism of the Cuban revolution, and the excitement of cinema as a “new” technology in rural Cuba.
Critical Music in Reassembly on Tinos
G Douglas Barrett
Reassembly, curated by G Douglas Barrett and Petros Touloudi Tinos, Greece 5 July 2017 to 31 October 2017
The free movement of bodies and objects once considered critical for the smooth functioning of contemporary art has appeared, especially since 2017, increasingly uncertain in this era marked by new forms of nationalism, xenophobia, and economic isolationism. Indeed, many artists working in this environment have found it difficult or impossible to cross once unquestionably open borders, or to ship works to and from exhibitions held across a requisitely international stage. As an attempt to respond to this crisis, I, along with Petros Touloudis, curated Reassembly, an exhibition held in the summer of 2017 on the island of Tinos, Greece. The exhibition came out of an annual residency program organized by Touloudis’s Tinos Quarry Platform and was held at the Cultural Foundation of Tinos. Overall, we wanted to ask if there is a critical role for music can play in the field contemporary art, especially as its plagued by new forms of border policing and geopolitical conflict.
“Turban-clad” British Subjects
Tracking the Circuits of Mobility, Visibility, and Sexuality in Settler Nation-Making
The late nineteenth century saw a wave of Indian migrants arrive in Victoria, many of whom took up the occupation of hawking. These often-described “turban-clad hawkers” regularly became visible to settlers as they moved through public space en route to the properties of their rural customers. This article explores how the turban became a symbol of the masculine threat Indians posed to the settler order of late nineteenth-century Victoria, Australia. This symbolism was tied up with the two-fold terrestrial and oceanic mobility of 'turban-clad' men; mobilities that took on particular meanings in a settler-colonial context where sedentarism was privileged over movement, and in a decade when legislators in Victoria and across the Australian colonies were working out ways to exclude Indian British subjects from the imagined Australian nation. I argue that European settlers' anxieties about the movements of Indian British subjects over sea and over land became metonymically conflated in ways that expressed and informed the late nineteenth-century project to create a settled and purely white nation. These findings have repercussions for understandings of the contemporaneous emergence of nationalisms in other British settler colonies.
New Mobilities, Spaces, and Ideas to Market
European Travel Writers and the Making of a Genre—Comment
Steven D. Spalding
nationalism found throughout this section: the “objects of observation” themselves notwithstanding, their presentation is inextricably tied to that of a mediatized image of self and nation. Met with pointed criticism, Hawkesworth’s account was nonetheless a
Mobility and the Geographical Imaginaries of Interwar Australian Magazines
Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich
literature and, by implication, a history of culture slanted toward radical cultural nationalism, based largely on a focus on high literary culture in book form. 3 While scholars like David Carter, Jill Julius Matthews, Mitchell Rolls, Anna Johnston, and
Transfers at a Crossroads
An Anthropological Perspective
Noel B. Salazar
, we should be careful not to exoticize non-Western scholars. The expectation that people have a different “voice” because they are from a particular place (e.g., the “Global South”) not only reifies the problems of methodological nationalism, it may
Print Culture, Mobility, and The Pacific, 1920–1950
Victoria Kuttainen and Susann Liebich
identities. In the Australian context, David Carter has argued that a distinct middle-brow culture emerged comparatively late, after the 1930s, strongly connected to cultural nationalism and national cultural institutions. 3 The articles in this special