“All our phrasing—race relations, racial chasm, racial justice, racial profiling, white privilege, even white supremacy—serves to obscure that racism is a visceral experience.” — Ta-Nehisi Coates (2015) One of the more notorious
Melanie Kennedy and Natalie Coulter
and the discussions that followed, then, remind us of the cultural visibility of tweenhood, and that the subject of the tween—one bound up with deep-rooted assumptions about race, beauty, and consumer culture—is a site onto and through which
Visible on Our Own Terms
Evoking Girlhood Self-Images Through Photographic Self-Study
Rosalind Hampton and Rachel Desjourdy
Photographic self-study can promote professional growth and deepen analysis of how girlhood experiences such as those related to ability, class, gender, and race are conditioned by and inform our multiple, shifting identities as women. This article presents excerpts from three women's experiences of photographic self-study, highlighting the possibilities of this method as a malleable, feminist approach to critical reflexive practice. Our stories demonstrate how a creative process of self-interpretation, self-representation, and self-knowing can draw oppressive categories of self-identification-carried from girlhood-to the surface and expose them to critique and deconstruction.
Some Assembly Required
Black Barbie and the Fabrication of Nicki Minaj
Jennifer Dawn Whitney
This article explores the public persona of hip hop artist Nicki Minaj, and her appropriation of the iconic Barbie doll. Minaj's image has drawn criticism from pundits and peers alike, but, nonetheless, it has inspired a creative fan following. With reference to feminist theory and recent trends in poststructuralist thought, this article suggests the ways in which Minaj and her fans pluralize how we think about Barbie, race and idealized femininity in the West.
Digitizing the Western Gaze
The End FGM Guardian Global Media Campaign
to divide, rather than unite, transecting as is often the case, existing ethnic, and class divisions (Cammaert forthcoming). And this is precisely what makes End FGM problematic—the allusion/ illusion that regardless of race, religion, class or any
“Boys Fight, Girls Fight“
Adolescent Girls Speak about Girls' Aggression
Melissa K. Levy
A perceived rise in girls' physical aggression is alarming the public as it collides with dominant views of femininity. Existing research focuses on either boys' violence or girls' non-physical aggression, leaving the realm of girls' physical aggression relatively unexplored. Using data from ethnographic observations and interviews, this study examines young adolescent girls' experience of their and their peers' fighting. Findings indicate that girls participate in fights to stand up for themselves and others, to show they are not afraid, and for fun. This study calls for continued in-depth research into girls' perspectives on aggression and violence in order to provide insight into how gendered, raced, and classed structures affect girls. It seeks, too, to address the problems that arise from girls fighting.
This article modifies philosopher Tamar Szabó Gendler's theory of imaginative resistance in order to make it applicable to film and analyze a distinctively adverse kind of resistant response to James Cameron's Avatar (2009). Gendler's theory, as she states it, seeks to explain resistance to literary stories in a straightforwardly cognitivist, but narrowly rationalistic fashion. This article introduces elements from recent work at the intersection of philosophy of film and the emotions to augment Gendler's theory so that it can be used to explain why some viewers hesitate or even refuse to imagine some cinematic fictional worlds. The method used is analytic philosophy of film. The analysis reveals that some viewers are cognitively impoverished with regard to imagining race in general: they will likely have extreme difficulty in centrally imagining racially "other" characters, which also bodes ill for their real-world prospects for moral engagements concerning race.
Spatializing Black Girlhood
Rap Music and Strategies of Refusal
required by law to be in educational spaces that do not engage with or recognize them because of the assemblage of age, race, and gender in these spaces ( Wun 2016 ). This results in social violence that is broadly normalized. Savannah Shange (2019) notes
Groped and Gutted
Hollywood's Hegemonic Reimagining of Counterculture
's commitment to white-male authority. Molina-Guzman finds that Hollywood productions can be consumed by mixed-gender and mixed-race audiences for the purposes of maximum profit. Yet ultimately, the white-male imagination behind the screen leads to the
Black Girls Fight to Save Themselves and the World
; Said 1978 ). In “Black Looks: Race and Representation,” bell hooks (1992) explains how Black woman as other connects to the desire of the Black female body within sexual desire and pleasure. Although the Black girls discussed in these media are not