This article aims to analyse the evolution of âshurâ Shi’ite rituals in an Iranian village, in light of the socio-economic transformations of the last thirty years. Studying these rites as a fait social total, we show that they reflect many aspects of local life. Thus, the increasing dependence of the village on the urban regional centre, the reorganisation of the ties between neighbouring but antagonistic localities, the decreasing status of the great landowners and the increasing social homogenisation, the development of rural exodus and recent national history (the Iran-Iraq war, the establishment of the Islamic Republic and the development of religious reformism) – all have had an influence on the organisation of âshurâ ceremonies. The many functions of this ritual appear then more clearly, manifesting the manner of regional integration, reaffirming internal hierarchies and communal identity, and showing the ever-increasing dependence on the urban world.
Révélateur privilégié d'un monde rural en mutation
Demographic and Migration Dynamics of Yakutsk, Russia
Svetlana Sukneva and Marlene Laruelle
Many cities of Russia’s Far North face a massive population decline, with the exception of those based on oil and gas extraction in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. Yet, there is one more exception to that trend: the city of Yakutsk, capital of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, whose population is booming, having grown from 186,000 in 1989 to 338,000 in 2018, This unique demographic dynamism is founded on the massive exodus of the ethnic Yakut population from rural parts of the republic to the capital city, a process that has reshaped the urban cultural landscape, making Yakutsk a genuine indigenous regional capital, the only one of its kind in the Russian Far North.
A study of transboundary town-twinning of Idiroko (Nigeria) and Igolo (Benin)
Olukayode A. Faleye
already urbanized areas characterized by circular migration from rural exodus to urban exodus gained momentum since 1980 due to the onset of economic crisis in the region ( Potts, 2012 ). This trend of urbanization has undermined the colonially determined
Three Roles in the Career of Tahia Carioca (1946, 1958 and 1972)
artisans) that the economic boom after the Second World War had contributed to create. After a massive rural exodus, the population in Cairo increased 60 per cent in just 10 years and passed from 1.3 million inhabitants in 1937 to 2.1 million in 1947