that many individuals around the world have an intimate connection with in their day-to-day lives, and global, the focus of an international commodity trade. Indeed more wheat is traded on international markets than any other grain ( FAS 2015 ). Yet
The Social Worlds of Wheat
African Trade and Chinese Oil Production in Western Chad
also traded the credits for mobile phones that were then not available on every corner or by phone-to-phone transfer as they are nowadays. Iba not only sold his merchandise for direct cash but also gave it out on credit in anticipation of payday. He did
Revisiting Canadian Economic Footprints in Siberia, 1890s–1921
Canada's interest in Russia's Far East and Siberia has a long history, propelled in the nineteenth century by London's Hudson's Bay Company driving eastward and St. Petersburg's Russian-American Company driving westward. Competition and sometime cooperation led to mutually beneficial projects shaping up in the early 20th century, among them plans to link up the Canadian Pacific Rail and Steamship Line with the Trans-Siberian in a trading complex that would have circumnavigated the world. The Great War, the Russian Revolution, and Civil War, sealed the fate of this grandiose vision. Studies on Western involvement in the Russian Civil War highlight, reasonably, the military dimensions of intervention. Canada sent troops to Siberia as well, but Ottawa's ambition was primarily trade. Using untapped Russian archival material and contemporary Siberian newspaper reports, this article revisits Canada's participation in Russia's postwar conflagration with emphasis on the extent to which expectation of economic gain shaped Canada's official and private presence in Siberia.
Post-socialist container markets and the city
Caroline Humphrey and Vera Skvirskaja
This article discusses a vast, new and semi-legal marketplace of shipping containers on the outskirts of Odessa, Ukraine. It is suggested that such markets, which have sprung up at several places in post-socialist space where routes intersect, have certain features in common with mediaeval trade fairs. However, today's markets have their own specificities in relation to state and legal regimes, migration, and the cities to which they are semi-attached. The article analyzes the Seventh Kilometer Market (Sed'moi) near Odessa as a particular socio-mythical space. It affords it own kind of protection and opportunities to traders, but these structures may be unstable in a changing economic climate.
V. A. Skubnevskii and lu. M. Goncharov
This article traces developments in Siberian trade and manufacturing in the period between the emancipation of the serfs and the early 1900s. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolving nature and role of the guild merchants. Attention is devoted to social change among the merchants, including education and their significance in local government and philanthropy.
Sadaqah, social enterprise, and the polytemporalities of development gifts
Tom Widger and Filippo Osella
successfully habituated the underpinning ethos of rejecting “handouts” and “paying one's way.” For some local residents this did appear attractive, while for others it was insulting and politically unpalatable. Such a trade in futures articulated by the
British Commerce and Trade in Siberia in the Early Twentieth Century
This article looks at the prospects and the reality of British commercial activity in Siberia in the early twentieth century, before the outbreak of World War I, and is based on contemporary comments by travelers, businessmen, and commercial agents. Contemporaries agreed that the dynamic Siberian economy opened up opportunities for British exports and trade. British firms, however, lagged behind commercial rivals, in particular in Germany, and the United States. The article explores the reasons for this and also looks at the subjects of the British Empire who went to Siberia and the conditions under which they worked. The article demonstrates the vibrancy of Siberian economic development in this period and the active participation of Western powers in this process.
The Black Sea as region and horizon
Caroline Humphrey and Vera Skvirskaja
The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning of backs. We then discuss the Black Sea in the context of maritime ethnography and the study of ports, “hero cities”, pipelines, and political crises. The following sections consider Smith's notion of the “territorialization of memory” in relation to histories of exile and the more recent interactions brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores.
Fernando R. Tesón
I agree with many of the theses advanced by Darrel Moellendorf in his important book. The book covers just about every single issue in international ethics: an individualist theory of sovereignty; an essentially Rawlsian philosophical methodology; the justice of immigration and trade controls; the justice of intervention and war; and a theory of global equality of opportunity. Moellendorf proposes a world of liberal separate states (similar to my own proposal)1 but committed to a scheme of non-statist global redistribution run by a sort of international agency. He thus joins other liberal commentators who have reacted to John Rawls’ rejection of principles of global socioeconomic justice.2 As is well known, Rawls’ principles of international justice are anti-cosmopolitan, not just in the sense that worries Moellendorf, that is, of eschewing global redistribution of wealth, but also in the area of human rights, where Rawls has essentially renounced global liberalism.3 Moellendorf believes, like those other liberal critics, that Rawls is wrong and justice requires transfers of wealth from citizens in rich countries to those in poor countries.
The problem addressed in the paper is that professional trade does not appear on the horizon of the national innovation system in Norway. Everyday trade in everyday goods, retailing, appears as a white spot on an otherwise fairly comprehensive map of the economic process. An ethnographic account would render a view of it as a terrain teeming with life and activity and depending on innovations to play the role it does in the national economy. In line with basic approaches in economic anthropology, I explore three sets of conditions that contribute to generate this particular white spot – the rationality of economic theory, the priorities of institutions in the political economy and a classificatory schema in which professional trade is categorically ‘matter out of place’. The innovation system is portrayed as reproducing a certain reality, ‘vicious cycle of “reality”’, and the concluding discussion is about how the grounded and experimental anthropological approach makes it possible to dismantle and explore such certainty.