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The “Imagined Other”

A Political Contextual Analysis of Secular and Hindu Nationalisms in Indian History Textbooks

Deepa Nair


In 2014, the National Democratic Alliance, led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), won the general election with the highest number of seats won by any party since 1984 and went on to win a second term victory in 2019. Since the rise of the BJP, Hindu nationalist interventions into education have increased. Their agenda has been to “indigenise, nationalise and spiritualise” education in India. To this end, textbooks were written to promote a Hindu majoritarian idea of India that sees Hindus as the primary citizens of India and categorizes Muslims as the “other”. This article outlines the political context in which Hindu nationalists have recently attempted to rewrite Indian history by focusing on the period of Muslim rule in India. It looks at textbooks published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and media reports about regional history rewriting in India.

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Textbooks in Periods of Political Transition after the Second World War

Kira Mahamud Angulo and Anna Ascenzi

course of successive controversial elections, of the country’s democratic society and political system. Three of the political changes examined occurred in the context of an economic crisis (Indonesia, Italy, and Spain), while in the case of Albania

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De-Orientalizing the Western Gaze on Eastern Europe

The First Soviet Occupation in Lithuanian History Textbooks

Barbara Christophe

envoy Vladimir Dekanozov, Paleckis organized an expedited election to the “people's government,” resulting in a landslide victory for a single coalition ticket in the absence of competitors. The first official act of the new parliament was to dispatch a

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Ruin of Empire

The Uganda Railway and Memory Work in Kenya

Norman Aselmeyer

November 2013, the construction of the Chinese-built railway reached Nairobi on 31 May 2017, a few months before the election. 3 At the inauguration ceremony, the president called the railway a “cornerstone for future development” that would mark “Kenya

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History Teaching and Cultural Hegemony

Representations of the Spanish Civil War in Francoist History Textbooks of the 1960s

Johanna Fricke

Confederation of Autonomous Rights – Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas) , which won the election in 1933, the mention of which would have significantly altered the image of the Republic presented in the text. By exaggerating the role of the

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Kira Mahamud Angulo and Yovana Hernández Laina

? What is the mechanism by which elections are decided? 63 It is significant that this textbook, published prior to Franco’s death, speaks of democracy, elections, and the operation of banks, presenting the connection between the economy and politics as

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Hieronymus Purwanta

House of Representatives passed the Armed Forces Act that forbade the election of active soldiers to political positions. 7 In theory, the downfall of President Soeharto and his military regime should have led to a change in historical accounts; instead

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Mixed Message Media

Girls’ Voices and Civic Engagement in Student Journalism

Piotr S. Bobkowski and Genelle I. Belmas

media should cover “[p]residential candidates and the upcoming election; how teens can make an impact on politics.” These responses illustrate that student journalism can help foster girls’ civic voices. Girls were slightly more likely than boys to

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“Can You Really See What We Write Online?”

Ethics and Privacy in Digital Research with Girls

Ronda Zelezny-Green

required me to undertake research only during after-school hours because of the government ban on pupils’ use of the technology on school campuses. This policy was implemented in 2008 in the wake of the post-election violence. Through surveys, participant

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Experiencing, Using, and Teaching History

Two History Teachers’ Relations to History and Educational Media

Robert Thorp

Swedish Social-Democratic Party consistently had between forty and fifty percent of the Swedish vote in the parliamentary elections, so it could be argued that both teachers come from typical Swedish backgrounds regarding this aspect. 26 Cf. Charlotte