troubling, that racial stereotypes are still so commonly deployed in comic practices. While Raul Pérèz considers racial stereotypes to be the ‘currency of comedy’ today (2013: 499) Rebecca Krefting observes how minstrelsy is still ‘commonly invoke[d]’ by
What Could Go Wrong?
Michael Jackson and Damian Grace
This article analyses the way in which the life and works of Niccolò Machiavelli are misunderstood and misconstrued by writers and scholars, in the fields of management, personality research and primate studies. While adjectives like 'Machiavellian' and nouns like 'Machiavellianism' have become part of the vernacular, these scholarly usages trade on, perpetuate and reinforce stereotypes of Machiavelli in (1) a host of books and articles in management, (2) an instrument to assess personality that has been administered to thousands of subjects around the world, and (3) authoritative studies of primate behaviours from the Netherlands to Japan. The distorted Machiavelli depicted in these fields is but a shadow of the deft, insightful and elusive Machiavelli of The Prince, The Discourses, Mandragola, The Art of War, The Florentine Histories and more. We suggest that colleagues should recognise and rebut these shadowy Machiavellis in teaching, scholarship and research. If specialists in history and political science ignore them, they will continue to obscure the reality.
Understanding Migrant Crime through the Comparative Examination of Local Markets
Immigration politics are almost universally characterized by their complexity, their ability to raise public passions, and misinformation, often based on generalizations and stereotypes. Recently, immigration has been intrinsically linked to crime, and public agendas have squarely focused on security issues as nativist political forces have successfully created a prominent image of migrants as threats to public security. This article argues that immigrant participation in criminal markets should be studied at the local level, where micro-criminal economies often dominated by migrants actually develop. By examining criminal activity at its base, the article investigates the nature of power in these markets. Specifically, it examines migrant crime in four cities and compares it to migrant integration in regular labour markets. By doing so, the article studies levels of migrant autonomy in both criminal and regular markets and argues that this autonomy indicates whether migrant crime is entrepreneurial or a sign of social deviance.
This article examines Nnamdi Azikiwe’s idea of mental emancipation as the intellectual foundation for his political philosophy. Mental emancipation involves re-educating Africans to adopt scientific, critical, analytic, and logical modes of thinking. Azikiwe argues that development must involve changing Africans’ intellectual attitudes and educational system. He argues that Western education, through perpetuating negative stereotypes and engendering ‘colonial mentality’, has neither fostered critical and scientific thinking, nor enabled Africans to apply their knowledge for development. Mental emancipation would enable Africans to develop self-confidence, and the critical examination of superstitious beliefs that have hindered Africa’s development. I show that Azikiwe’s ideas have been recaptured by African philosophers like Bodunrin and Wiredu, regarding their critique of aspects of African tradition and prescription for how African philosophy can contribute to development.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
How is it possible to reconcile what I learn in the field with what I teach for a living? This paper shows how an answer seems to have formulated itself in practice. The reconciliation is fractured. The problem could have been more easily solved if I had decided to ‘teach’ (transcode for academic use) what I learned in the field. I hope you will work out from what follows why this is not an option for my stereotype of myself, why that solution would have been more a part of the problem, for me, than this incoherence. I give you the dilemma, as its reconciliation. The first section is about what I learn in the field: other women. The second about how that has changed what I teach for a living: literary criticism.
The Political History of ‘Risk-Versus-Reward’ Investment in Emerging Markets
foundation of the financial system ( Ingrassia 1998 ). Such descriptions of credit entailed ‘many associations of negative and stereotypically female qualities [like] avaricious sexuality, emotional instability [and] hysteria’ (Ingrassia quoted in de Goede
Valery B. Ferim
that Africans are incapable of contributing to knowledge, reason and thought – a stereotype that black people have endured for centuries. For instance, Encyclopedia Britannica (1798) defines a negro as follows: NEGRO, Homo pelli nigra, a name given
Interrupting the Gendered Representation of Betrayal in Resistance Movements
femininity, erecting a dichotomy between ‘good’ women who conform to idealised gender stereotypes, and ‘bad’ women who transgress them and are to be condemned. Second, I show how these binary myths of woman underpin the masculinist understandings of
Developing Donald Davidson's Ideas in International Political Theory
truth ( Gunnell 2020 ) – but what he rejected were rather the established varieties of these theories. Davidson did not follow stereotypical realism and mentalism: language represents neither ‘an independent world’ nor ‘private thought’ ( Gunnell 2020
Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition
stereotypes that offer racist ‘misrecognition’ of the Indigenous person as (ontologically or ‘culturally’ inferior) Other. 6 Second, Coulthard’s commitment to gender justice for Indigenous women is not matched by an epistemological attentiveness to the wide