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The Miserable, Mythical, Magical Marmiton

Representing Culinary Apprenticeship in Early Third Republic France

Michael D. Garval

Revealing paradoxes abounded in early Third Republic French representations of the marmiton, or culinary apprentice. Investigative reportage and reformist discourse exposed apprentices’ miserable existence while still depicting these young fellows as playful and carefree. Conversely, popular marmiton mythology, particularly in children’s literature, idealized culinary apprenticeship, amid glimpses of harsh living and working conditions, while also highlighting admittedly rare opportunities for ambitious apprentices to achieve substantial public success. Max Jacob’s children’s book Histoire du Roi Kaboul Ier et du Marmiton Gauwain provides an emblematic example with its parodic fairy-tale rendering of celebrity chef Auguste Escoffier’s extraordinary triumphs. Ultimately, while enchanting, the rosy popular vision of the magical marmiton obfuscated exploitative child labor practices underpinning the whole culinary enterprise in this supposed golden age of French gastronomy.

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Walter Benjamin

The Consolation of History in a Paris Exile

Patrick H. Hutton

Walter Benjamin, a Jewish German literary critic of modest reputation during the interwar years, has become an intellectual celebrity in our times. In flight from Nazi Germany, he took refuge in Paris during the 1930s before dying in 1940 in a vain effort to escape to America. In this essay, I analyze his ideas as conceived in his Paris exile, with particular attention to his turn to the topics of memory and of history and of the relationship between them. I close with some thoughts on how his ideas about memory's redeeming power played into the humanist Marxism of the intellectuals of the 1960s and subsequently the preoccupation with memory in late twentieth-century scholarship.

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Beyond the Myth of Lesbian Montmartre

The Case of Chez Palmyre

Leslie Choquette

not have been more perfect. Like Maurice, Palmyre catered to a gay clientele, but she also brought in lesbians, who had a lower profile in the competing establishment. 44 From the beginning, she went out of her way to cultivate lesbian celebrities

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Jules Vallès and Séverine

Romantic Socialism and the Afterlife of a Cross-Sex Friendship in French Political Culture, 1880–1929

Michael Mulvey

-American individualism, or embracing scientific socialism. Séverine later achieved celebrity as a Dreyfusard journalist, suffragist, and antiwar activist: moments when she collaborated with men and women outside artificial class-based divisions of proletarian and

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The Ill-Equipped Modernist

Historicizing Édouard Dujardin’s Les Lauriers Sont Coupés

Kelly J. Maynard

Dujardin names and addresses of artists and celebrities—Prince Edmond de Polignac, Ary Renan (son of the famous historian), and Edmond Degas, for example—who might be cajoled into subscribing or contributing an eye-catching image or article. This support

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African Dawn

Keïta Fodéba and the Imagining of National Culture in Guinea

Andrew W. M. Smith

figure enjoying celebrity on several continents and engaging with international communist networks can perhaps explain the trepidation felt by metropolitan officials. As a member of the World Federation of Trade Unions’ General Council, Sékou Touré was

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Antoinette Burton

,” that is, where economic loss and a sense of racial disenfranchisement go hand in hand, 2 for it is precisely the combination of decolonization “out there” and economic precarity “at home” that afforded her this unlikely celebrity. Quartet offers a

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The Problem of Modern Pederasty in Queer History

A Case Study of Norman Douglas

Rachel Hope Cleves

way to explaining why most readers will never have heard of Douglas before. He was a celebrity during the 1920s and 1930s, a central figure in British literary circles, and a friend to stars in the twentieth-century literary pantheon such as Joseph

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“Purely Artistic”

Police Power and Popular Culture in Colonial Algerian Theater

Danielle Beaujon

picking on a celebrity, particularly one who frequently sang at government events, would only invite the ire of the Algerian masses. The police could also use tours to gather intelligence. In a letter between the prefects of Algiers and Constantine in