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Totemic Outsiders

Ontological Transformation among the Makushi

James Andrew Whitaker

This article examines how sociological totemism mediates the co-existence of animism and an emerging naturalism among the Makushi in Surama Village (Guyana) within contexts of interactions with outsiders. Since the 1830s, such contexts have varied from missionization to eco-tourism, which Surama developed in the 1990s and which has since significantly increased. Eco-tourism currently facilitates access to employment, goods, outside knowledge, and international allies in Surama. In the present, villagers seek to fête and propitiate the leaders of outside groups and organizations to ensure the continued provision of these desiderata. Such practices are linked to shamanic relations with the ‘masters’ or ‘owners’ of animals, plants, and other aspects of the landscape. This article argues that these notions of mastery and ownership produce totemic homologies when applied to the intra-social relations of outsiders in Surama. The resulting homologies facilitate the emergence of a nascent naturalism that indicates ongoing ontological transformation in Surama.

Open access

Ryan Goeckner, Sean M. Daley, Jordyn Gunville, and Christine M. Daley

. Robert M. Emerson , 335 – 352 . Long Grove, IL : Waveland Press . Cheyenne River Reservation . 2015 . “ A Snapshot of the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation: Income and Employment .” https://web.archive.org/web/20170817133620/http

Open access

Liberation Autochthony

Namibian Veteran Politics and African Citizenship Claims

Lalli Metsola

( Namibian 1995a , 1995b , 1995c , 1995d ). In response, the government chose a course of action that drastically diverged from the typical course of reintegration programs—mass public employment. 4 Through this effort called ‘Peace Project’ more than 18

Open access

Philippine Prison Marriages

The Politics of Kinship and Women's Composite Agency

Sif Lehman Jensen

Maharlika. Sara, who had been working in Saudi Arabia for 11 years before settling in Maharlika, explained that despite the various kinds of abuse the women experienced as overseas workers, such employment is preferable, as the income allowed them to provide

Open access

Seeking Recognition, Becoming Citizens

Achievements and Grievances among Former Combatants from Three Wars

Johanna Söderström

extended the compensations to former SWAPO veterans and provided employment with government agencies, especially following organized protests by these veterans. The narrative and legitimacy of SWAPO has been built up around the centrality of their veterans

Open access

Pac'Stão versus the City of Police

Contentious Activism Facing Megaprojects, Authoritarianism, and Violence

Einar Braathen

booming parts of the city. Civil construction, domestic work, and street vending were the typical breadwinning activities. As a result of this type of employment, people in Manguinhos became less interconnected. Nevertheless, in Rio's postindustrial