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Open access

Jason Dockstader and Rojîn Mûkrîyan

We do two things in this article: develop a novel conception of domination and show how the Kurdish people are dominated in this novel sense. Conceptions of domination are usually distinguished in terms of paradigm cases and whether they are moralised and/or normdependent accounts, or neither. By contrast, we argue there is a way of understanding domination in terms of distinct social kinds. Among kinds of domination, like economic or racial or sexual domination, there must be a specifically political kind of domination. Borrowing from Carl Schmitt’s framework of differing degrees of political enmity, we argue political domination is best understood as an existential form of domination whereby one people aim to prevent the independent existence of another people mainly through the uncontrolled power and extreme violence involved in absolute enmity. This conception of existential domination is offered as an example of a non-moralised, normindependent account of domination. We then argue that the Kurdish people, who are the largest stateless people in the world, suffer existential domination from the absolute enmity expressed towards them by the four nation-states they find themselves dominated within: Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran.

Open access

The Case of Pakistan

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Perceived Well-Being of Displaced Households

Fariya Hashmat, Ahmad Nawaz, Tony Bradley, and Asad Ghalib

This article represents a qualitative investigation of the vulnerabilities of displaced households in Pakistan caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The analyses are conducted through the lens of social quality theory and the social quality approach according to four societal dimensions that condition household life chances. Our findings reveal that these households reflect a reversal of the sustainable development cycle. They are at risk of being economically unstable, being unable to gain new skills, falling into absolute poverty, increased morbidity rates, and disrupted education. The most severe form of deprivation is the disruption of their networks of social cohesion, leading to greater isolation and marginalization; this is especially true for women and children. The Pakistani government must take immediate and substantive action to improve the situations of these most vulnerable of households.

Open access

Cacher, festive et végétarienne

La nouvelle cuisine des fêtes juives

Sophie Nizard

Abstract

While meat food is valued socially and symbolically as a part of traditional Jewish culinary culture, vegetarianism and veganism among Jews increased quite spectaculary over the past decade, especially in the USA and in Israel. According to rabbis and to interviewees themselves this new way of eating rooted in the Hebrew Bible and in the rabbinic literature. Indeed causing any cruelty or suffering to animals is prohibited according to these sacred sources; this is an absolute principle. Such changes are having effects on the increment of the products that are certified “green” and on the increase of vegan friendly restaurants in Israel. The narrative of Jewish women about their food and culinary practices shows those ongoing changes which are often not the result of ideological radical choices.

Résumé

Alors que la viande et les produits carnés sont fortement valorisés par la culture culinaire juive traditionnelle, on assiste depuis une dizaine d'années à un développement spectaculaire des pratiques végétariennes ou véganes en milieu juif, en particulier aux Etats-Unis et en Israël. Cette nouvelle manière de manger est justifiée par les mangeurs eux-mêmes et par nombre de rabbins comme prenant sa source dans la Bible hébraïque et dans la littérature rabbinique. En effet, l'interdit de causer de la souffrance aux animaux apparaît comme un principe fort des textes de la tradition juive. Ces changements sont repérables du fait de l'augmentation de l'offre en Israël (apparition de produits green et certifiés « sans matière animale » dans les supermarchés, multiplication de restaurants vegan friendly). Les discours de femmes juives sur leurs pratiques alimentaires et culinaires, recueillis au début de l'année 2020, viennent illustrer ces changements qui s'avèrent progressifs et sont rarement le résultat de choix idéologiques radicaux.

Open access

Fernando Antonio Ignacio González, Maria Emma Santos, and Silvia London

Abstract

This article analyses the recent evolution of territorial disparities in Argentina, measured by a Multidimensional Poverty Index, by carrying out a formal convergence analysis between agglomerates. In particular, the existence of absolute β-convergence and σ-convergence is tested. The information comes from the microdata of the Permanent Household Survey. The results suggest that, although an end-to-end analysis of the period shows a decrease in poverty accompanied by a reduction in territorial disparities between the main urban agglomerates in Argentina, when disaggregating by subperiods, it is evident that in periods of economic growth (essentially from 2003 to 2009), territorial disparities increased. Conversely, in periods of stagnation, these disparities decrease.

Resumen

Este articulo analiza la evolución reciente de las disparidades territoriales en Argentina, medida por un Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional, mediante un análisis formal de convergencia entre aglomerados. En particular, se testea la existencia de convergencia-β absoluta y convergencia-σ. La información proviene de los microdatos de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares. Los resultados sugieren que, si bien en un análisis punta-a-punta del período se observa una reducción de la pobreza acompañada de una reducción de las disparidades territoriales entre los principales aglomerados urbanos de Argentina, al desagregar por subperíodos, se evidencia que en los períodos de crecimiento económico (esencialmente del 2003 al 2009) se incrementaron las disparidades territoriales. En tanto que en los periodos de estancamiento, estas disparidades se redujeron.

Résumé

Ce travail analyse l'évolution récente des disparités territoriales en Argentine, mesurée à partir d'un Indice multidimensionnel de la pauvreté, sur la base d'une étude de la convergence entre les agglomérations urbaines. Il teste en particulier l'existence de la beta convergence absolue et de la sigma convergence. Les informations proviennent de microdonnées de l'Enquête permanente des ménages. Bien qu'une analyse ponctuelle de la période montre une réduction générale de la pauvreté accompagnée d'une réduction des disparités territoriales entre les principales agglomérations urbaines d'Argentine, la désagrégation par sous-périodes permet d'observer que pendant les périodes de croissance économique (essentiellement de 2003 à 2009), les disparités territoriales se sont accrues alors qu'en période de stagnation elles se sont réduites.

Open access

Practising Intimate Labour

Birth Doulas Respond during COVID-19

Angela N. Castañeda and Julie Johnson Searcy

articulate the cost of this disruption to families as they face impossible choices: I've witnessed the absolute terror that families are feeling. Even my home birth clients are terrified that they will have to transfer [to the hospital] at some point and

Open access

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Mette Louise Berg, and Johanna Waters

constituting it as the absolute opposite of “the North.” As noted by Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Daley (2018: 22) , “Decoloniality demands a de-centering of global North knowledge through opening up spaces in Northern publications and through genuine collaborations

Open access

Commitment, Convergence, Alterity

Muslim-Christian Comparison and the Politics of Distinction in the Netherlands

Daan Beekers

more weight on their personal, emotional relationship with God and their recognition of the importance of Christ's redemption in their personal lives. These were, however, not absolute differences. Indeed, my Christian interlocutors often emphasized the

Open access

Mahdieh Vali-Zadeh

, even when this was an absolute taboo according to the rules of Islam, and subsequently the unwritten cultural societal rules of Iran as it was then. The poem's first-person narrative is representative of a strong, courageous voice which announces ‘the

Open access

Interpretation and Rationality

Developing Donald Davidson's Ideas in International Political Theory

Nikolay Gudalov

fruitful theory need not be mainly descriptive: Davidson uncovers the logical foundations of communication. And this is valuable, as there are authors who, despite recognising elsewhere that absolute incommensurability is impossible, still write about

Open access

Dreams of Prosperity – Enactments of Growth

The Rise and Fall of Farming in Varanger

Marianne Elisabeth Lien

home economics. It is noted that six months is an absolute minimum, as several of the students are of Lappish descent, and hence ‘have had initial difficulties following the course, partly because they to a great degree lacked other preconditions for