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Women's Work and Men

Generational and Class Dimensions of Men's Resistance to Women's Paid Employment in State-Socialist Poland (1956–1980)

Natalia Jarska

. In the film, Irena's husband is not opposed to women at work, but rather to having a working woman in his home. Working women challenged the model of marriage and family in which roles were strictly delineated: men were the breadwinners, women took

Open access

For the Father of a Newborn

Soviet Obstetrics and the Mobilization of Men as Medical Allies

Amy E. Randall

maternal and infant care also produced knowledge about reproduction and women's and men's bodies that informed Soviet gender norms and sexual behaviors. In addition, efforts to mobilize men contributed to broader initiatives to promote a new model of Soviet

Open access

Educating the Other

Foreign Governesses in Wallachia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

Nicoleta Roman

was a member of a professional group with a significant impact not only on the elite in this part of Europe, but also on educational initiatives for girls: namely, governesses. The model of private education provided by governesses in aristocratic

Open access

“Did You Teach Us to Do Otherwise?”

Young Women in the Tsukunft Youth Movement in Interwar Poland and Their Role Models

Magdalena Kozłowska

empowering and often radicalizing experience of young Tsukunft women during the interwar period as they learned from their female role models how to live, organize, rebel, resist, and fight. I argue that despite the scarcity of high-ranking female leaders

Open access

Sharon A. Kowalsky

-sponsored institutions, governesses served as role models for young women and shaped the next generation of Romanian teachers. Similarly, Magdalena Kozłowska investigates the transgenerational connections that shaped and influenced the female members of the Tsukunft, the

Open access

From Don Juan to Comrade Ivan

Educating the Young Men of the Urals for Love and Marriage, 1953–1964

Brendan McElmeel

surveys presented the 1940s and 1950s as a key moment in the shift from a pragmatic model of love oriented toward duty and suitability toward a romantic model organized around self-fulfillment and personal compatibility. 20 Some historians have pointed to

Open access


Men and Masculinities under Socialism: Toward a Social and Cultural History

Peter Hallama

of the worker-hero or the soldier-hero were (and remained) normative models only (or mainly) thanks to their promotion by the communist state. 16 Still, Raewyn Connell and James Messerschmidt clearly stated that even if hegemonic masculinity may

Open access

Valentina Mitkova

various theoretical and literary-historical models of artistic reception (techniques that are certainly representative of Kirova's writing). Similar to the compositional architecture and concept of Literaturata: Udovolstvia i predizvikatelstva is the

Open access

Valentina Mitkova

/matter), subject to his guidance and modeling. One hundred years after Mara Belcheva's inauguration in the Bulgarian literary scene, the two-volume critical edition Mara Belcheva: Poezia and Mara Belcheva: Proza i prevodi , initiated and compiled by Milena

Open access

Comment: Socialism's Mal(e)contents

Masculinity as Performance Art in Postwar and Late Socialism

Marko Dumančić

viewed the working wife as a threat to the family structure and the husband's identity, middle-class urbanites born in the early 1950s and after tended to positively evaluate the dual income model because it achieved a better standard of living and