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Open access

Toxic Waste and Race in Twenty-First Century America

Neighborhood Poverty and Racial Composition in the Siting of Hazardous Waste Facilities

Michael Mascarenhas, Ryken Grattet, and Kathleen Mege

In 1987, the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice released its groundbreaking study, Toxic Waste and Race in the United States. The report found race to be the most significant predictor of where hazardous waste facilities were located in the United States. We review this and other studies of environmental racism in an effort to explain the relationship between race and the proximity to hazardous waste facilities. More recent research provides some evidence that the effect is causal, where polluting industries follow the path of least resistance. To date, the published work using Census data ends in 2000, which neglects the period when economic and political changes may have worsened the relationship between race and toxic exposure. Thus, we replicate findings using data from 2010 to show that racial disparities remain persistent in 2010. We conclude with a call for further research on how race and siting have changed during the 2010s.

Open access

Latin America

A challenging prospect for regionalism

Ernesto Vivares

region internationally. These arguments point almost exclusively to the external domain bias, hiding the historical and unequal internal social configurations (based on classes, race, and ethnicity) that are functional for the international insertion and

Open access

Navigating Shifting Regimes of Ocean Governance

From UNCLOS to Sustainable Development Goal 14

Ana K. Spalding and Ricardo de Ycaza

more than 8.4 percent of EEZs considered being under some level of protection ( Pinheiro et al. 2019 ). Despite broad scientific support for large marine protected areas as tools to achieve those targets, some critics argue that the race to establish