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Don Nonini

making and unmaking of the commons. In the second section, I provide evidence for the existence of a housing commons in Amsterdam in the mid-1980s. The third sections applies the theoretical concepts of the article to explain the making of the housing

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Jaro Stacul

of the application materials is that thanks to the revolution led by Solidarność in the 1980s, the Poles who had settled in Gdańsk after World War II gained for the first time a sense of community ( Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku 2011: 9 ). Yet 20 years

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After dispossession

Ethnographic approaches to neoliberalization

Oscar Salemink and Mattias Borg Rasmussen

the 1980s globalization has taken on increasingly neoliberalizing forms in the form of commoditization of objects, resources, or even human bodies, their reduction to financial values, and their enclosure or other forms of dispossession. Neoliberalism

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Radical Shakespeare

In Memory of Terry Hawkes (1932–2014)

Graham Holderness and Richard Wilson

This issue is devoted to the radical and innovative Shakespeare criticism that emerged in Britain in the 1980s; and to the memory of a hugely influential and much-loved leader in the field, Professor Terence Hawkes, who died in 2014.

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Introduction

Whither race? Physical anthropology in post-1945 Central and Southeastern Europe

Marius Turda

Although research on the history of physical anthropology in Central and Southeastern Europe has increased significantly since the 1990s the impact race had on the discipline's conceptual maturity has yet to be fully addressed. Once physical anthropology is recognized as having preserved inter-war racial tropes within scientific discourses about national communities, new insights on how nationalism developed during the 1970s and 1980s will emerge, both in countries belonging to the communist East—Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania, and in those belonging to the West—Austria and Greece. By looking at the relationship between race and physical anthropology in these countries after 1945 it becomes clear what enabled the recurrent themes of ethnic primordiality, racial continuity, and de-nationalizing of ethnic minorities not only to flourish during the 1980s but also to re-emerge overtly during political changes characterizing the last two decades.

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Reflections on 1989

When Poland’s future opened up, Solidarity’s sense of agency disappeared

David Ost

Perhaps the most surprising part of my recollection of 1989 is to recall the large part of it that was not surprising at all. Because nothing had gotten back to “normal” in Poland in the 1980s, the political events of that decade always happened with Solidarity as the “other.” Because the political situation never seemed resolved, it was always in flux. What happened in 1989 was thus treated initially as part of that flux, by me and by Polish political actors themselves.

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My long 1989

Anticipations of a new Europe

Douglas R. Holmes

Interviews with the leadership of the Movimento Friuli (MF) were the last task, almost a postscript, of a study that preoccupied me during the 1980s. After a decade of research in the Friuli region of northeast Italy I was reasonably satisfied that I had achieved something like closure on the project. I was reluctant in the summer of 1987 to open any new lines of inquiry that might disturb my contentment.

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Neo-liberalism

Dominant but dead

Neil Smith

Some years ago Jürgen Habermas (1991) diagnosed modernism as dominant but dead. Neo- liberalism may still be in its youth, having come to fruition only after the 1970s, but it seems reasonable to conclude that neo-liberalism too is “dominant but dead.” The ferment of new ideas, however much they were simultaneously recycled axia from the earlier liberal tradition, reached its peak in the 1980s.

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Maurizio Cotta

Apart from the event itself, the formation of the second Berlusconi

government is, from a wider perspective, replete with interesting

elements. It facilitates a better understanding of where the transformation

process of the Italian political system stands about 10

years after the crisis of the 1990s. The theme of government – its

process of formation and completion, as well as its political basis

and operational capacity – is of obvious importance. The ‘First

Republic’ was predominantly characterised by the way government

was produced (and how it consequently functioned). It is no coincidence

that the debate on institutional reform that began in the

1980s targeted the issue of government and the need for reform.

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Maurizio Carbone

In August 2008, Georgia launched a large-scale attack to retake control

of South Ossetia, an enclave in the northern part of its territory

that had been trying to break away formally since the late 1980s. In

response, Russia bombed not only military but also civilian targets,

claiming that its intervention was meant to protect Russian citizens.

This quick escalation of events raised concerns about other unresolved

conflicts in the South Caucasus. In fact, within a few days, Russian

troops took control of South Ossetia and were ready to start a second

front in Abkhazia, another separatist area within Georgia.