Comics, and in particular European comics, has always engaged with the social world, whether to contest or to uphold its norms. From its antecedents in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century caricature, it inherited a strong current of satire and critique. In the adventure genre that marked the emergence of European comics in its modern form in the first part of the twentieth century, engagement with the world was no less evident, but most often served, rather, to defend the dominant order, colonial or anti-communist, as heroes set off to right wrongs in far-flung places.
Comics, the Social World and Challenging Consensus
Autonomous Driving and the Transformation of Car Cultures
Jutta Weber and Fabian Kröger
user of an autonomous car. What kinds of images are used, what promises are made, and how is this discourse influenced by gendered norms? Do class and race interact with gender in the case of driverless cars? The exploration of these imagined futures is
European Comic Art Reaches Its Tenth Year
Québec. Our contributors have often pointed to the capacity of comics, long confined to the countercultural or mass-cultural margins, for disrupting norms in relation not only to official narratives of nation but also to gender, ethnic and social class
Mike Classon Frangos
exaggerated self-representation of the author and a carnivalesque reversal of the menstrual taboo. Through absurdist humour and grotesque exaggeration, Doucet's comics can be thought of as examples of activist shock tactics that challenge the norms of silence
Demystification and Disruption
Laurence Grove, Anne Magnussen, and Ann Miller
society, in which menstruation would be revered. Frangos shows how she uses metatextual strategies, including self-reflexive commentary, to unsettle habitual norms and definitions of gender and, in a reparative move, to look beyond their limits. He
A Historical Focus on Comics
Lawrence Grove, Anne Magnussen, and Ann Miller
conspicuous. The authors emphasise the significance of the representation of lesbians in some comics, at a time when homophobia was the norm within society and when, even within the women's movement itself, gay women were silenced and invisible. A strand of
Multimodal Extension in the Works of Aleix Saló
Javier Muñoz-Basols and Marina Massaguer Comes
Middle Eastern background music, thereby reaffirming the humour evoked by the drawings through the effect of ‘anchoring’ the viewer-listener in this imaginary Españistán, where poverty and political chaos are the norm ( Figure 4 ). The nomenclature
Emerging Kinship in a Changing Middle East
The introduction to this issue has two strands. First, it contextualises the articles, which address kinship from varied perspectives, and situates them in their broader cultural context. Second, it adopts a comparative perspective by differentiating between the present articles with those published a decade earlier on the same themes in this journal, to examine whether, how and to what extent kinship has changed in the face of modernity, globalisation, wars, migrations and political change. It concludes that, compared with a decade ago, kinship has not only not weakened, but it has revived further and penetrated other institutions beyond family, or called upon to ensure and protect the continuity of cultural norms and values, from the threats paused by modernity and by the global, cultural and political invasions.
The Importance of Rituals in Everyday Life in the Middle East
Zubaydah Ashkanani and Soheila Shahshahani
A culture can be expressed in a succinct way in its rituals, the manifestations of the culmination of its deepest beliefs. Rituals are also attempts to maintain cohesion, which they do most successfully in the material and non-material arts. Knowledge of a culture is necessary in order to portray the totality of that culture through its rituals and ceremonies. As a central topic in anthropology, ritual has been regarded as a phenomenon that is resistant to change and bound to a great extent to certain norms and regulations. Yet it is obvious that rituals are not rigid, unvarying sets of performances and that they have undergone many changes in definitions, functions and interpretations. Indeed, all aspects of culture, including rituals, are subject to change. Drawing on the past, cultures sustain their beliefs by making use of what is at hand in the present.
This issue of Projections focuses on movie violence, a topic of continuing controversy. Concerns about screen violence are not new. Because of their visceral power, popular appeal, and the seeming ease with which they bypassed established channels and norms of socialization, movies swiftly drew the attention and scorn of social critics and reformers. The city of Chicago passed the nation’s first movie censorship ordinance in 1907. Numerous state and municipal censor boards were established in its wake, and movie violence drove the first court-adjudicated censorship case in American film history. The James Boys in Missouri (1908) and Night Riders (1908) were Westerns that Chicago authorities deemed to be immoral because they concentrated on showing the exploits of violent outlaws. The Chicago reformers felt that the films lacked an appropriate moral balance in failing to devote sufficient attention to law-abiding characters.