The underground provides many spatial planning opportunities as it offers space for structures, but also functions as a resource for energy. To guide developments and use the capabilities the underground provides, the Dutch national government started a policy process for the Structuurvisie Ondergrond (a master plan). Stakeholders are involved in the policy process because of the many interests linked to underground functions. However, past policy processes related to the underground dealt with lack of stakeholder satisfaction. This article explores a quantitative approach by focusing on (a) statistical testing of four criteria of interactive governance and (b) using said criteria to evaluate the satisfaction of stakeholders in a policy process. This article highlights the usefulness of a more quantitative approach and provides new insights into the relation between interactive governance and the procedural satisfaction of stakeholders. It also provides insights that help to improve interactive governance in terms of process management to achieve greater procedural satisfaction.
Ehsan Nouzari, Thomas Hartmann, and Tejo Spit
From UNCLOS to Sustainable Development Goal 14
Ana K. Spalding and Ricardo de Ycaza
. With the advent of the blue economy narrative (e.g., Burgess et al. 2018 ) and the use of governance planning tools such as marine spatial planning and ocean zoning (e.g., Sanchirico et al. 2010 ), the emphasis has shifted toward procedural efficiency
Analyzing the Social-Ecological Impacts of Forest Conservation and Management over the Long Term
Daniel C. Miller, Pushpendra Rana, and Catherine Benson Wahlén
– 37 . doi:10.1023/a:1006803908149 . 10.1023/A:1006803908149 Grainger , Alan . 2012 . “ Forest Sustainability Indicator Systems as Procedural Policy Tools in Global Environmental Governance .” Global Environmental Change 22 ( 1 ): 147 – 160