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Alberto Melloni

What impact did the so-called Vatileaks scandal have on Italian politics? And how deep were the connections between the Vatican and the Italian transition of political assets in 2012? This in-depth analysis shows that the problems of the Church in relation to the state came much before the 2012 crisis, namely, during the time of the reluctant submission of Catholic hierarchies to Berlusconism.

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Asher D. Colombo and Luigi La Fauci

In 2013, the European Court of Human Rights found that the conditions inside Italian prisons were so bad, they amounted to inhuman and/or degrading punishment. Since that time, the Italian government has attempted to reduce overcrowding inside prisons. This chapter shows that most of the reduction in overcrowding has not been the result of amnesties, pardons, or other forms of early release, such as electronic tagging. Rather, it is the result of changes that have decreased the number of individuals entering prison, in particular prisoners on remand and those awaiting final sentencing.

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Becoming Communist

Ideals, Dreams, and Nightmares

Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

/or as social outcasts, punished because of guilt by association to their disgraced husbands. She documents the harsh conditions in the camps, the forced labor, the vile food, the dehumanization, the “ritualized sexual humiliation and punishment used to

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Masculinity on Stage

Dueling in the Greek Capital, 1870–1918

Dimitra Vassiliadou

“small people” were not allowed to engage in the practice at all, since they were altogether without honor. 36 Dueling (and the lack of punishment for such) was a privilege of class that other “less worthy” and “dishonorable” classes did not possess. It

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Heidi Hakkarainen

after the revolution can also be seen in another issue that was covered in the press. In 1848–49, humanism was discussed on several occasions in debates on corporal punishment and death penalty ignited after the Frankfurt Parliament abolished it in

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“Amongst Affectionate Female Friends”

Same-Sex Intimacy in Nineteenth-Century Polish Correspondence

Natalie Cornett

to exile in Siberia as punishment for his crimes. Żmichowska sometimes corresponded with him through Wanda Grabowska and Seweryn Markiewicz. 41 Bolesława Rodysowa, cousin of Henryk Wohl, and friend of Żmichowska, Matylda Natansonowa, and the

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A Gloomy Carnival of Freedom

Sex, Gender, and Emotions among Polish Displaced Person in the Aftermath of World War II

Katarzyna Nowak

prostitution, seen as violent coercion, and to prostitutes, who had to be rescued from their plight through charity. 90 Punishment for the orgy of freedom—in the form of social condemnation, separation, exclusion from the community and from the emigration

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Tadashi Hirai

): 1435 – 1446 . doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1522 . 10.1098/rstb.2004.1522 Herrmann , B. , C. Thöni , and S. Gächter . 2008 . “ Antisocial Punishment across Societies .” Science 319 ( 5868 ): 1362 – 1367 . http://www.jstor.com/stable/20053530 10

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Elaine MacKinnon

frenzied fit to ensure that a more capable set of hands would do the operation, and she succeeded. 91 Nadezhda clearly took risks in challenging the authorities; such actions could lead to harsh punishments that could dehydrate and debilitate already

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Maria Bucur, Alexandra Ghit, Ayşe Durakbaşa, Ivana Pantelić, Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild, Elizabeth A. Wood, Anna Müller, Galina Goncharova, Zorana Antonijević, Katarzyna Sierakowska, Andrea Feldman, Maria Kokkinou, Alexandra Zavos, Marija M. Bulatović, Siobhán Hearne, and Rayna Gavrilova

punishment [Prisoners from the second half of the nineteenth century and the penal system in Serbia]) (279–317) blends perfectly with the album. Nonetheless, it could be read as a standalone sociopolitical, cultural, and literary account about women, crimes