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Introduction

Caricature

The Editors

The history of European comic art is closely intertwined with that of caricature. The comic books by Swiss cartoonist Rodolphe Töpffer – his romans en estampes [‘novels in engravings’] – which are foundational to the medium, are essentially extended caricatures of social types (they have been called romans en caricatures [‘caricature novels’]): the limited but common-sensical father (Crépin); the flighty naturalist (Vieux Bois); the domineering financée (Elvire); the prodigal son and revolutionary (Albert); the bumbling, pretentious social climber (Jabot); etc. Together these constitute a continuation, in bande dessinée, of the passing portraits with which he scatters his Voyages en zigzig (1832 onwards). The latter in turn follow the tradition of Thomas Rowlandson’s The Tour of Doctor Syntax (1812, in French from 1821), which is linked to the ‘narrative series’ of engravings by William Hogarth, for whom Töpffer professed great admiration (Töpffer’s own father also drew caricatures). They have all been traced back to Charles Le Brun’s Méthode pour apprendre à dessiner les passions [‘Method for Learning to Draw the Passions’], first published in 1702, in which the artist explores the way physical appearance can depict interior morality.

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David Allen Harvey

Despite its long-standing reputation for skepticism and irreverence, the Enlightenment took religion quite seriously. Historians have long recognized this fact, and have often represented the intellectual history of the eighteenth century in terms of the struggle between religious faith and philosophical skepticism. One common view of the period holds that religious dogmatism and intolerance, memorably condemned by Voltaire as l’Infâme, served as the negative pole against which the positive Enlightenment ideals of secularism, reason, and tolerance were articulated. Nearly a century ago, Ernst Cassirer characterized this view (which he did not entirely share) by writing, “French Encyclopedism declares war openly on religion,” accusing it of “having been an eternal hindrance to intellectual progress.” Around the same time, Carl Becker argued that the eighteenth-century philosophes sought to recast the “heavenly city” imagined by church fathers such as St. Augustine into a vision of a terrestrial utopian future. A generation later, Peter Gay described the philosophes as “modern pagans,” who “used their classical learning to free themselves from their Christian heritage.” For such scholars, the historical signifi cance of the Enlightenment lay in its break with religious tradition and embrace of “modernity”, defined primarily by secularism and rationality.

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Jonathan Skinner

In this second issue of the year, I am pleased to present a group of papers focused on ‘Embodiment and Teaching and Learning in Anthropology’. Inspiration for this volume came from the 25th Anniversary Conference at St Andrews University, Scotland, marking twenty-five years of Social Anthropology at the university. The event was organised by Dr Mark Harris at the start of 2005 and was billed as ‘Ways of Knowing’. Versions of papers given by Greg Downey (Notre Dame) and Cristina Grasseni (Bergamo) are added to, first by Nigel Rapport (Concordia) with Noa Vaisman (Cornell), who were involved in ‘A Cornell–St Andrews Knowledge Exchange’ as part of the activities of the Centre for the Anthropological Study of Knowledge and Ethics (CASKE) at St Andrews; and second, by two articles derived from research at The Queen’s University Belfast (Jonathan Skinner and Kirk Simpson, and Jonathan McIntosh). We are grateful to research and seminar participants and informants at all of these institutions for their input and comments.

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Jonathan Skinner

This is the third edition of the year 2005. We have moved from neoliberalism and the audit culture in the university, to embodiment in the teaching and learning of anthropology, and finally to the involvement of anthropologists in the Second World War and the following Cold War. In this volume, we are still experimenting and finding our feet. Here, after articles by David Price on the OSS and Japan, Gretchen Schafft with archival biographical research on a Nazi medical doctor, and Eric Ross on university involvement in the Cold War, we give Janice Harper some extra space to make her points about nuclear tourism. Rather than split Harper’s article, we have decided to let it run on. It is an article about the curious construction of cultural heritage. And it can be read from a post-9/11, post-7/7 vantage point where the catastrophe as well as catastrophic places can become Zeitgeist (tourist) sites (see also Feldman 2002). The piece links in with the other contributions to show the longue durée of wars with and on terror, and the changing nature and commemoration of our involvement with them.

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Jonathan Magonet

Now that this issue focusing on Yiddish is completed it seems obvious, at least in retrospect, that this was a relevant and important topic for a journal devoted to themes affecting Jewish life in Europe. This was not so self-evident when the idea began to emerge. An early impetus was the offering of an article some years ago by Haike Beruriah Wiegand, included here, on the writings of Isaac Bashevis Singer. At the time it seemed too specialised and lacking in a context, so it was held in reserve. Another impetus was hearing a lecture on the unexpected topic of ‘Yiddish Tango in Argentina’ by Lloica Czackis, included in this issue, accompanied by her own excellent performances of the songs. That in turn triggered many memories of performances of Yiddish songs in Germany by excellent singers and musicians as diverse as Daniel Kempin, Shura Lipovsky, Roswitha Dasch and Katharina Muetter, the former two Jewish, the latter not, all of whom have undertaken serious research into Yiddish culture and music, and brought commitment and learning, as well as great artistry, to their work. Suddenly the obviousness of the subject became apparent.

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Andrew J. Ball

I am pleased to begin the final issue of the year with a very special announcement. Screen Bodies is modifying its editorial direction and the kind of work it will feature. Many of our readers will already have a sense of these changes, made evident by the new Aims and Scope section we made available online earlier this summer, and by the journal’s new subtitle, The Journal of Embodiment, Media Arts, and Technology. As these indicate, the foundational commitments of the journal remain unchanged; however, moving forward will we intensify our focus on new media art, technology studies, and the interface of the sciences and the humanities. We will continue to examine the cultural, aesthetic, ethical, and political dimensions of emerging technologies, but with a renewed attention to such areas as intermediality, human–machine interface, virtual and augmented reality, artificial intelligence, generative art, smart environments, immersive and interactive installations, machine learning, biotechnology, computer science, digital culture, and digital humanities. The journal will continue to prioritize matters of the body and screen media, both in terms of representation and engagement, but will emphasize research that critically reexamines those very concepts, as, for example, in the case of object-oriented feminism’s nonanthropocentric approach, which asks us to rethink what we mean by bodies and embodiment.

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Communities of Practice at the Cidade do Saber

Plural Citizenship and Social Inclusion in Brazil

Carla Guerrón Montero

Learning and knowledge are interconnected. Learning is a social process occurring within the context of engaged networks and relationships; knowledge is a situated product of the activity, context and culture in which it is developed, a ‘co

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Carl A. Maida and Sam Beck

( Lave 1988 ). A community of practice provides a framework for understanding social learning in complex organisations, specifically the notion of knowing. For novices and experts alike, knowing within a community of practice is based upon socially

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Penny Welch and Susan Wright

Welcome to this issue of Learning and Teaching: The International Journal of Higher Education in the Social Sciences . The issue opens with an account of an experiment undertaken by team of climate-change postgraduates and their tutor. Anna

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“For Girls to Feel Safe”

Community Engineering for Sexual Assault Prevention

Day Greenberg and Angela Calabrese Barton

Learning and practice are grounded in historical, physical, and contextual location ( Bright et al. 2013 ). In STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), sociohistorical narratives about who can develop and succeed in these subjects