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Moroccan Jews in Modern Times

Orientations and Reorientations

Norman A. Stillman

Until the mid twentieth century, Moroccan Jewry constituted the largest non-Ashkenazi Jewish community and had more than double the population of any other Jewish community in the Islamic world. Under the influence of the Alliance Israélite Universelle school network, French colonialism, the experience of World War II and the innate tensions between Zionism and Arab nationalism, the Jews of Morocco underwent a variety of transformations and ultimately the dissolution of the community as a result of the mass exodus to Israel, France and North America.

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Julie Fette

integration offered by the Alliance israélite universelle, they became schoolteachers and were transferred to Belfort in 1965 and relocated several times throughout France and abroad. Their three sons, born in Casablanca in the 1950s and 1960s, are products of

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Hilary Pomeroy

The eleven articles in this issue of European Judaism reflect the social and religious culture of Moroccan Jews set against an ever changing backdrop of persecution and conflict, interaction and cohabitation. Ranging from Berber Jews to forced converts, scholars, courtiers and artisans, Moroccan Jews were constantly under threat. Despite this unstable situation, they produced literary and religious works in Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic and Judeo-Spanish as well as creating distinctive life-cycle customs, songs and a highly skilled material culture. While the Jewish community of Morocco is today considerably reduced, Moroccan immigrants in Israel, France and the Americas keep the memory and identity of Jewish Morocco alive.

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Prelude to Colonialism

Moroccan Muslims and Jews through Western Lenses, 1860–1912

Michael M. Laskier

This study is a portrayal of Moroccan Muslims and Jews by European travellers, journalists, experts and diplomats from the latter half of the nineteenth century until the transformation of Morocco in 1912 into a colonial entity under French and Spanish protectorates. In this pre-colonial setting, we catch a glimpse of a traditional society and its gradual, albeit partial, evolution towards modernity among the Jews as well as an understanding of Europe’s economic, political and cultural penetration into the Sharifian Empire, which for hundreds of years preserved its independence when many Islamic societies capitulated to foreign domination. What were the major challenges confronted by Morocco in the pre-colonial era? Did Muslims and Jews conform to or reject modernisation brought by European culture? What were the socioeconomic conditions and the juridical status of the Jews vis-à-vis the Muslim majority? These are some of the main concerns of our investigation.

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Nadia Malinovich

1947, the AIU created The American Friends of the Alliance israélite universelle (The Friends), an American-based branch of the organization that gathered together Sephardic immigrants from diverse countries. This diversity, which reflects the reach of

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Aro Velmet and Rachel Kantrowitz

Alliance israélite universelle, AIU) and “muscular” Zionism (96). Through schools established across the Mediterranean basin, the AIU promoted French civilization to Oriental Jews, emphasizing “well-mannered” behavior, sober demeanor, and good morals. By

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Two Patterns of Modernization

An Analysis of the Ethnic Issue in Israel

Shlomo Fischer

recherche sur les Juifs d’Afrique du Nord . Graetz , Michael . 1983 . The Periphery Became the Center: Chapters in the History of French Jews in the Nineteenth Century from Saint-Simon to the Founding Alliance Israelite Universelle . [In Hebrew

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Nicole Abravanel

Sam Lévy en 1930, il n’y a probablement que peu ou plus rien à faire en “Orient,” c’est-à-dire après la signature du traité de Lausanne. Bien qu’à Jérusalem encore, en continuité avec la diplomatie conduite par l’Alliance israélite universelle (AIU) en

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By Sentiment and By Status

Remembering and Forgetting Crémieux during the Franco-Algerian War

Jessica Hammerman

’Algérie,” Information Juive 74 (February 1956). Credit: Bibliothèque de l’Alliance israélite universelle (Paris). Many scholars have pointed to 1956 as the year when the Franco-Algerian War was thrust into global consciousness. It was then that the Algerian Question

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Stephen Berkowitz

Israélite Universelle , Paris , pp. 91 – 98 . Pujol , Catherine. ‘ Pour une spiritualité juive moderne: l’Union libérale israélite et ses fondatrices Marguerite Brandon Salvador et Clarisse Eugène Simon ’, pp. 69 – 83 ; Laloum, Jean, ‘Du culte libéral