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The Worth of the ‘While’

Time and Taxes in a Finnish Timebank

Matti Eräsaari

‘standard’. In Finland, for example, taxes have in the past been appraised using units such as the ‘hook’ ( koukku , the area farmed by a man with a pair of oxen) or the ‘mantal’ ( manttaali or ‘man count’, a taxation unit based on the yield of the land

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Evert Van de Vliert

.356 Ethiopia −0.368 −2.118 −3.120 −1.218 Finland 1.525 1.242 0.710 1.840 France 0.536 1.268 0.818 1.282 Georgia 0.106 −1.100 −1.456 −1.142 Germany 0.923 1.275 0.856 1.092 Ghana −1.228 −1.157 −1.397 0.419 Greece −0.282 0.921 0.100 0.660 Guatemala −0.841 −0

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Past and Present

Matthew P. Romaniello

breadth of disciplines: history, anthropology, linguistics, and environmental studies, to name a few. It begins with a look at the contribution of Finnish ships and sailors to the Russian American Company’s efforts in the North Pacific by the eminent

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Listening to the Troubled Waters

Ethnographical Work as a Reciprocal Activity

Jaana Kouri

The history of Lypyrtti, an old pilot village in the southwestern coast of Finland, is for many villagers a story of depopulation of a vital community during the last fifty years. In 2005 the villagers of Lypyrtti expressed their interest in collecting the oral history of their village. This material is gathered, edited and released in the context of research on the topic of 'narrated environment', which draws attention to the interdisciplinary methods and theories of the practices of place making

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Putting Together the Anthropology of Tax and the Anthropology of Ethics

Soumhya Venkatesan

not doing what states ought to do, or is doing too much. For these reasons, they insist on their ethical freedom to oppose a tax-based morality. This is clear from Matti Eräsaari's article on a Finnish timebank's resistance to the state's insistence on

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Federica Tarabusi

resolved in the country, but also a breath of freshness and modernity in a context paralyzed by corruption and inertia. As soon as we got out of the taxi, the Finnish official who had been sitting next to me commented: “Do not believe it as a compliment to

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Ashley Lebner

25 ( 2 ): 373 – 386 . 10.1017/S0022216X00004703 Strathern , Marilyn . 1990 . Artefacts of history: Events and the interpretation of images . In Jukka Siikala , ed., Culture and history in the Pacific , pp. 25 – 44 . Helsinki : Finnish

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Tax Beyond the Social Contract

Nicolette Makovicky and Robin Smith

Eräsaari's study of the Helsinki Timebank's alternative currency—the ‘while’—and its struggle to prevent the while's translation into euros for taxable purposes by the Finnish tax authority. Eräsaari illustrates how the Timebank's egalitarian organizational

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Richard H. Robbins

-to-GDP Ratio Source : Dobbs et al. (2015: 32) Spain 1.7 3.8 5.5 132 United Kingdom 2.5 2.2 4.7 92 France 1.5 2.5 4.0 104 Portugal 1.4 2.5 3.9 148 Finland 1.6 2.1 3.6 65 United States 2.8 0.3 3.1 89 Netherlands 1.6 1.3 3.0 83 Japan 1.1 1.8 2.9 234 Italy 0.9 1

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Svetlana Huusko

Peoples of Northern Russia: Anthropology and Health . Raahe, Finland : International Association of Circumpolar Health . Landers , Brian . 2011 . Empires Apart: A History of American and Russian imperialism . New York : Pegasus Books . Lee