This essay explores a key issue in Durkheim’s work, namely the relationship between justice and charity, and argues that the key to this, in turn, is to be found in an analysis of the gift. Beginning with his early lycée lectures and their account of justice and charity in relation to the moral law, it goes on to suggest that throughout his work there is an underlying concern with the gift – even or especially in his concern with the contract. This is evident in his vision of a society based on a ‘spontaneous’ division of labour, as well as in his critique of the inequalities built into existing society through the institution of inheritance. But the essay also draws on modern French discussions of the gift, and their concern with issues of mutuality, reciprocity and recognition. This helps to identify the approach to the gift that underlies Durkheim’s sociology, and to bring out its interest and importance.
A Society of Justice and Charity
Engagements, Contexts, Reconsiderations
At one hundred, we are told, a book becomes a classic; at one hundred Simone de Beauvoir has surely become a legend. And yet, like all legends, she remains something of an enigma, yet to be discovered. To be discovered, perhaps, in a way similar to her own attempt at self-discovery in Hard Times (the second volume of The Force of Circumstance), which results in a moving encounter with symptoms, repressions, and defenses that reveal those darker unrepentant forces―dreams and nightmares―that haunt her life. To discover is also to uncover the pages of a partly-written life that recurs in a succession of dreams and nightmares. As Beauvoir puts it: “In my dreams … there are objects that have always recurred” as “receptacles of suffering … the hands of a watch that begin to race [moved] by a secret and appalling organic disorder; a piece of wood bleeds beneath the blow of an ax … I feel the terror of these nightmares in my waking hours, if I call to mind the walking skeletons of Calcutta orthose little gourds with human faces―children suffering from malnutrition.”
Most academics that I know take it for granted that higher education in capitalist countries has become deeply corporatised over the last thirty years. But as an undergraduate student in the 1990s, dreaming of joining the ranks of the professoriate, the institutional and structural changes that were transforming the university were largely hidden from my view. Looking back, I had no idea how such trends might be impacting the men and women who excited my intellect and set me on an academic path. I did not even think to ask.
Identities in Transformation after World War I
malaise. While belligerent nationalist discourses were undeniably prominent during this period, other discourses, founded on new hopes and dreams, were rooted in the desire to promote both mutual coexistence and a respect for difference. The fall of the
Comparing Eastleigh, Nairobi, and Xiaobei, Guangzhou, as Sites of South-South Migration
Neil Carrier and Gordon Mathews
, and it is in such places that many dreams of mobility and social mobility take shape. The article will accordingly give overviews of Eastleigh and Xiaobei and their mobility dynamics, dynamics that share some similarities (being generally built on the
Sarah B. Rodriguez
( Hatfield et al. 2009 ; The Forum on Education Abroad 2013 ). It was inspired by ‘The American Dream’ game developed by Jennifer Yim while she was a graduate student at the University of Michigan. 5 The students play the board game I developed at the end
The Rule of Law—A Heuristic Perspective?
the American Dream . As an impressionist painter of the late nineteenth century—taking on board a manifold of empirical evidences—Chomsky presents the reader with how the American dream will be destructed by the application of egocentric hedonistic
Korean Immigrant Merchants in South Central Los Angeles in the 1980s
. 3 (1984): 333–352; In-Jin Yoon, On My Own: Korean Businesses and Race Relations in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997); Kyeyoung Park, The Korean American Dream: Immigrants and Small Business in New York City (Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Why We Should Be Careful about the Stories We Use to Tell Other Stories
We are storytelling animals ( Gottschall 2012 ). Stories help us make sense of the messiness of life ( Polkinghorne 1988 ) and events that shatter our hopes and dreams; they provide us with the means to inherit our entangled pasts and envision
political responses to different sorts of (flawed) numbers fluctuate are not about trust or distrust: Dreams of measurement for control purposes are articulated; these are shown to be defective and/or leading to adverse unintended consequences; new measures