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Hanna Schissler

The globalizing world with its entanglements and multiple interactions, shifting notions of place and time, unifying as well as fragmenting tendencies, new forms of boundary drawing, and old and new lines of conflict, influences our lives and public awareness in the “information age.” As far as education is concerned, this situation demands a critical stock taking and new reference frames for understanding this globalizing world, which on the one hand provides great new opportunities and on the other hand generates enormous risks. It requires teachers to offer guidance and teaching materials to provide young people with orientation. Rapidly shifting contexts demand new abilities to act and to maneuver. Collectives and individuals are equally impacted by the uneven processes that are customarily summarized as “globalization.” To understand what is happening in this complex world is crucial. From the perspective of old or insuffi cient reference frames, the world will seem erratic, unpredictable, and arbitrary. Schools as the transmitters of knowledge and as socializing agencies play a crucial role in preparing young people for this world of multiple modernities and development. It is their responsibility to provide orientation and guidance. How well they do this depends on any number of factors, and not least on the quality of educational materials. Such materials, however, are frequently more than simply educational media. They are sources via which the societies in which they are produced and put to use may be understood.

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David Allen Harvey

Despite its long-standing reputation for skepticism and irreverence, the Enlightenment took religion quite seriously. Historians have long recognized this fact, and have often represented the intellectual history of the eighteenth century in terms of the struggle between religious faith and philosophical skepticism. One common view of the period holds that religious dogmatism and intolerance, memorably condemned by Voltaire as l’Infâme, served as the negative pole against which the positive Enlightenment ideals of secularism, reason, and tolerance were articulated. Nearly a century ago, Ernst Cassirer characterized this view (which he did not entirely share) by writing, “French Encyclopedism declares war openly on religion,” accusing it of “having been an eternal hindrance to intellectual progress.” Around the same time, Carl Becker argued that the eighteenth-century philosophes sought to recast the “heavenly city” imagined by church fathers such as St. Augustine into a vision of a terrestrial utopian future. A generation later, Peter Gay described the philosophes as “modern pagans,” who “used their classical learning to free themselves from their Christian heritage.” For such scholars, the historical signifi cance of the Enlightenment lay in its break with religious tradition and embrace of “modernity”, defined primarily by secularism and rationality.

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Introduction: World Knowledge and Non-European Space

Nineteenth Century Geography Textbooks and Children’s Books

Andreas Weiß

growing concern that led to the academic revolution in geography, out of which emerged Carl Ritter’s famous definition of geography as the “science of space” and of history as the “science of time.” 1 This period also saw a change in learning spaces. New

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Introduction

Educational Films: A Historical Review of Media Innovation in Schools

Eckhardt Fuchs, Anne Bruch, and Michael Annegarn-Gläß

Translator : Nicola Watson

. They not only convey information and support learning but also foster communication between teachers and pupils and between classmates and groups. However, despite the significant role of teaching media other than textbooks in the classroom, educational

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Zilka Spahić Šiljak

Women in BiH: Analysis of the Results of the Star Pilot Research done in 2002 , World Learning Star Network (Sarajevo: Jež, 2002); Marija Divičić, “Organizacija antifašističkog fronta žena Sarajevo u Socijalističkoj Jugoslaviji” [Organization of the

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Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski, Julian Pänke, and Jochen Roose

cited as reasons for its international popularity. See “ bbc Poll: Germany Most Popular Country in the Word,” https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-22624104?fb_ref=Default&fb_source=message . 6 See, for example, Andrew H. Beattie, “Learning from the

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“Amongst Affectionate Female Friends”

Same-Sex Intimacy in Nineteenth-Century Polish Correspondence

Natalie Cornett

propose my path to anyone—they must emerge from their own initiative. What does it mean, Wanda, that after you mentioned Seweryn 38 —you wrote Mr. Ludwik 39 —and nothing else? Is he also on his way? Or still learning? I have to at least once in my life

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“Did You Teach Us to Do Otherwise?”

Young Women in the Tsukunft Youth Movement in Interwar Poland and Their Role Models

Magdalena Kozłowska

emotions were most easily stoked by learning about heroines from the past, women who had emerged as leaders. Especially for a socialist organization such as Tsukunft, it was not hard to identify and leverage radical role models from the past, either from

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“Maternal Impressions”

Disability Memoirs in Socialist Poland

Natalia Pamula

. Ultimately, she devised for him a special rehabilitation plan and taught him to read lips and speak. She is, perhaps without knowing, an “oralist”; she believes that a deaf person should learn to read lips and speak instead of learning a sign language. By

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“The 1990s Wasn't Just a Time of Bandits; We Feminists Were Also Making Mischief!”

Celebrating Twenty Years of Feminist Enlightenment Projects in Tver’

Julie Hemment and Valentina Uspenskaya

their own projects and direction. You referred to Zhenskii Svet as a “corridor” to signal your skepticism about formalization and hierarchical modes of learning. Your vision was always that Zhenskii Svet would be a “roundtable of equals,” where members