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David Allen Harvey

Despite its long-standing reputation for skepticism and irreverence, the Enlightenment took religion quite seriously. Historians have long recognized this fact, and have often represented the intellectual history of the eighteenth century in terms of the struggle between religious faith and philosophical skepticism. One common view of the period holds that religious dogmatism and intolerance, memorably condemned by Voltaire as l’Infâme, served as the negative pole against which the positive Enlightenment ideals of secularism, reason, and tolerance were articulated. Nearly a century ago, Ernst Cassirer characterized this view (which he did not entirely share) by writing, “French Encyclopedism declares war openly on religion,” accusing it of “having been an eternal hindrance to intellectual progress.” Around the same time, Carl Becker argued that the eighteenth-century philosophes sought to recast the “heavenly city” imagined by church fathers such as St. Augustine into a vision of a terrestrial utopian future. A generation later, Peter Gay described the philosophes as “modern pagans,” who “used their classical learning to free themselves from their Christian heritage.” For such scholars, the historical signifi cance of the Enlightenment lay in its break with religious tradition and embrace of “modernity”, defined primarily by secularism and rationality.

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Centralized or Decentralized

Which Governance Systems are Having a “Good” Pandemic?

Jennifer Gaskell and Gerry Stoker

four positive qualities of multilevel governance can contribute, when combined, to give greater chances of positive practical outcomes in times of crisis. Multi-level governance benefits from both centralized and decentralized capacity, mutual learning

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Democracy in a Global Emergency

Five Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic

Afsoun Afsahi, Emily Beausoleil, Rikki Dean, Selen A. Ercan, and Jean-Paul Gagnon

. The global spread of the virus has created a unique opportunity for shared learning around the world. Citizens, communities, and governments everywhere have been faced with the same urgent task of limiting the spread of COVID-19. This has led to

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Distributional Concept Analysis

A Computational Model for History of Concepts

Peter De Bolla, Ewan Jones, Paul Nulty, Gabriel Recchia, and John Regan

Resources,” (accessed 13 April 2019). 22 See David M. Blei, Andrew Y. Ng, and Michael I. Jordan, “Latent Dirichlet Allocation,” Journal of Machine Learning Research 3 (2003): 993–1022. 23 See Kevin M. Quinn, Burt L

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Who Governs in Deep Crises?

The Case of Germany

Wolfgang Merkel

-systems state, society, and health: regime type (democratic vs. autocratic), state capacity (high vs. low), state leadership (smart vs. not smart), and state learning from previous epidemics (open vs. closed). These are the four “state variables.” State action

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Marcos S. Scauso, Garrett FitzGerald, Arlene B. Tickner, Navnita Chadha Behera, Chengxin Pan, Chih-yu Shih, and Kosuke Shimizu

freedom and agency. Current marginalization and stigmatization of China parallels previous Asian learning experiences with SARS and MERS, in which Western recognition of their potential value was both delayed and partial. That the roots of the colonial

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Barbara Prainsack

-profit healthcare are faring better than those that do not. Amid all the talk and excitement around learning healthcare systems and resilient societies in recent years and decades, what the COVID-19 crisis has taught us so far is that the most resilient societies

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Milja Kurki

yet just because we are scared by the surprising fragility of our social and political order, we also cannot ignore the virus: we must learn to live with it. And this, as we are learning, changes how we metabolize the world, oil, food, social systems

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Louise Haagh

gain an insight into the dangers of thinking activities like work or education are best arranged informally. On the other hand, fears that even short absences from school will deepen the divides that test-led learning creates ( Sweeney 2020 ) tells us

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Heidi Hakkarainen

Anforderungen der Zeit . 17 Some researchers have suggested that because Humanismus was first coined as a polemical concept to advocate classical learning in an era of schooling reforms, it was not as widely used as the concept of Humanität , a notion that