The article begins with reported data on social and economic imbalances and their negative effects on sustainable development. The state, the social partners, and enterprises such as cooperatives formerly organized democratic participation as the central mechanism through which social justice regenerates. Globalization makes them inoperative. That is why we have to reconsider the role of enterprises in general. Their responsibilities under the Global Compact and similar measures are not sufficient, unless they are made legally binding and are complemented by laws that link their structure to the aspects of sustainable development. The article singles out cooperatives and points to their features being approximated through legislation with the features of capitalistic companies, which negatively affects their sustainable development performance. The article concludes with remarks on the challenges for legislators, not least the outdated notion of competitiveness and a radically changing concept of enterprise.
The End of the 1972/1973 Conjuncture? A Legal Perspective
Silvia Bolgherini and Selena Grimaldi
The regional elections that were held in May 2015 have confirmed the changes that have recently been taking place in the politicalparty system in Italy: the end of the bipolar system and the emergence of a third pole consisting of the M5S. The tripolarism at the regional level can be attributed not only to the success of the M5S, but also to the loss of salience of the center-right and the disappointing performance of the center-left. In terms of the political offer, this election round showed an increase in party fragmentation and the average number of candidates and a greater variability in the number and type of coalitions than in previous contests. In terms of results, it showed a greater dispersion of the vote between the candidates for the presidency and identified the M5S and the LN as the two axes on which the new balance of power in the regions is centered.
Vincenzo Emanuele and Nicola Maggini
The importance of the 2016 municipal elections in Italy was a consequence not only of the number and relevance of the cities involved, including Rome, Milan, Naples, and Turin, but also of their timing, occurring in the middle of the 2013–2018 electoral cycle. These elections were thus perceived as a mid-term test for the national government, acquiring a relevance that went beyond their specific local context. This chapter analyzes the electoral supply, voter turnout, electoral results, and vote shifts, focusing on a synchronic and diachronic comparison of the performance of the candidates and the parties. The evidence presented shows that despite winning the plurality of municipalities, the Democratic Party clearly paid the cost of ruling at the national level. The number of its mayors was halved, and it was defeated in Rome and Turin by the Five Star Movement, the true winner of these elections.
Political Rights and Presidential Leadership to the Test
Latin America was hit by COVID-19 in a moment of (socio-)economic distress and political unrest. This essay reflects on the immediate repercussions of the COVID-19 crisis for democracy in the region. It expounds how responding to the pandemic put to the test the still consolidating democracies with their long-standing defects in the areas of political and civil rights and horizontal accountability. In the course of coping with the crisis, it is precisely in these problem areas that additional risks for democracy have arisen due to infringements of political rights and the performance of presidents. Regarding the latter, the ambiguities of presidential leadership become particularly evident when comparing pragmatic and populist responses to the crisis.
The unprecedented government majority that resulted from the 2001
election and the radical promises of the prime minister candidate Silvio
Berlusconi had suggested that epochal change could follow the
alternation of government from left to right. Major constitutional and
socio-economic reform had been promised that would create a new,
successful, and dynamic country of which Italians could be proud.
More specifically, the public had been led to believe that the government
would enact strong federal reform while reinforcing the executive,
perhaps especially the prime minister, and introducing a new era
of markedly liberal economic policies. Thus, tax cuts and the promotion
of economic growth would create jobs and guarantee continuing
high standards of living. The government’s “honeymoon period,” however,
was short-lived. By the end of the year, trust in the government
had fallen to just below 50 percent, where it stabilized throughout
2002. Doubts about the government’s ability to deliver reflected its
poor performance on economic and social matters, resulting from both
the international economic downturn and its own mismanagement of
the domestic agenda, most notably industrial relations. By the autumn
of 2003, the Bank of Italy was drawing attention to a two-year period
of domestic stagnation and a decade-long investment slump.
Appraising Existing Indicators from a Long-term Perspective
Takahiro Sato, Mario Ivan López, Taizo Wada, Shiro Sato, Makoto Nishi, and Kazuo Watanabe
to measure human development, there has also been intensive work on developing environmental indicators, such as the Ecological Footprint (EF) ( Wackenagel and Rees 1996 ), the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ( Esty et al. 2006 ), and the
Lauri Rapeli and Inga Saikkonen
the electorate (on this, see, for example, Markowski and Tworzecki 2020 ; Svolik 2019 ). The grave public health and economic consequences of the pandemic may seriously dent the “performance legitimacy” of these regimes, and can undermine the regimes
Social Class, Dressing Up, and Women's Self-Positioning in Socialist Slovenia
positions. According to Erving Goffman, social status is not a material thing that is possessed and displayed, but a pattern of proper performance, whether it occurs in an elegant or embarrassing way. 62 To provide a more multifaceted reflection on social
Five Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic
Afsoun Afsahi, Emily Beausoleil, Rikki Dean, Selen A. Ercan, and Jean-Paul Gagnon
a situation in which relative government performance can be measured in such a visceral way as the graphs of excess deaths that the Financial Times or the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center have, for instance, updated daily throughout the
Which Governance Systems are Having a “Good” Pandemic?
Jennifer Gaskell and Gerry Stoker
the ground. Local authorities in England have through the austerity measures of the last decade lost a great deal of capacity. NHS bodies seemed tied up by a complex system that seems to discourage initiative in favor of regulation and performance