intentions of ancient artists. He also believed that such an artistic performance reflected the attempts of the painter to help people “fill life with beauty,” “humanistic features,” and “nobility.” According to Okladnikov, when archaeologists copied drawings
Soviet Archeological “Discoveries” and Indigenous Evenkis
The Imprisonment of Women in Eighteenth-Century Siberia
system that extracted resources from the periphery. An examination of gender performance, and the transitional moral and legal expectations of elite women in the eighteenth-century Russian society can help scholars understand deeper meanings of female
Ivan Poliakov’s Collection, 1876
Ekaterina B. Tolmacheva
, instead, on beauty and performance quality. They built up works of art, commercial projects, and tried to reflect not so much the reality as the most vivid, exotic living conditions ( Geary 1986 ). Professional photographers of this period were often
Who Embodies europe? Explorations into the Construction of european Bodies
Anika Keinz and Paweł Lewicki
hierarchies that conflate essentialised national representations with lifestyles, class, gender performances and race ( Lewicki 2016 ; Ryan 2010 ). These phenomena show that there is a ‘spectre of Orientalism’ ( Buchowski 2006 ; see also Melegh 2006 ) and
The Sub-disciplinary Context
Máiréad Nic Craith and Laurent Sebastian Fournier
This special issue on anthropology and literature invited proposals for original contributions focusing on relationships between anthropology and literature. We were especially interested in the following questions: what role does literature play in anthropology? Can literature be considered as ethnography? What are the relationships between anthropology and literature, past and present? Are anthropology and anthropological motives used in literature? We also looked for critical readings of writers as anthropologists and critical readings of anthropologists as writers. Moreover, we wanted to assess the influence of literature on the invention of traditions, rituals and cultural performances. All these different questions and topics are clearly connected with the study of literacy, illiteracy and popular culture. They also lead to questions regarding potential textual strategies for ethnography and the possibilities of bringing together the field of anthropology (more associated with the social sciences) and literary studies (traditionally part of the humanities).
Silvia Bolgherini and Selena Grimaldi
The regional elections that were held in May 2015 have confirmed the changes that have recently been taking place in the politicalparty system in Italy: the end of the bipolar system and the emergence of a third pole consisting of the M5S. The tripolarism at the regional level can be attributed not only to the success of the M5S, but also to the loss of salience of the center-right and the disappointing performance of the center-left. In terms of the political offer, this election round showed an increase in party fragmentation and the average number of candidates and a greater variability in the number and type of coalitions than in previous contests. In terms of results, it showed a greater dispersion of the vote between the candidates for the presidency and identified the M5S and the LN as the two axes on which the new balance of power in the regions is centered.
Vincenzo Emanuele and Nicola Maggini
The importance of the 2016 municipal elections in Italy was a consequence not only of the number and relevance of the cities involved, including Rome, Milan, Naples, and Turin, but also of their timing, occurring in the middle of the 2013–2018 electoral cycle. These elections were thus perceived as a mid-term test for the national government, acquiring a relevance that went beyond their specific local context. This chapter analyzes the electoral supply, voter turnout, electoral results, and vote shifts, focusing on a synchronic and diachronic comparison of the performance of the candidates and the parties. The evidence presented shows that despite winning the plurality of municipalities, the Democratic Party clearly paid the cost of ruling at the national level. The number of its mayors was halved, and it was defeated in Rome and Turin by the Five Star Movement, the true winner of these elections.
The Importance of Rituals in Everyday Life in the Middle East
Zubaydah Ashkanani and Soheila Shahshahani
A culture can be expressed in a succinct way in its rituals, the manifestations of the culmination of its deepest beliefs. Rituals are also attempts to maintain cohesion, which they do most successfully in the material and non-material arts. Knowledge of a culture is necessary in order to portray the totality of that culture through its rituals and ceremonies. As a central topic in anthropology, ritual has been regarded as a phenomenon that is resistant to change and bound to a great extent to certain norms and regulations. Yet it is obvious that rituals are not rigid, unvarying sets of performances and that they have undergone many changes in definitions, functions and interpretations. Indeed, all aspects of culture, including rituals, are subject to change. Drawing on the past, cultures sustain their beliefs by making use of what is at hand in the present.
The unprecedented government majority that resulted from the 2001
election and the radical promises of the prime minister candidate Silvio
Berlusconi had suggested that epochal change could follow the
alternation of government from left to right. Major constitutional and
socio-economic reform had been promised that would create a new,
successful, and dynamic country of which Italians could be proud.
More specifically, the public had been led to believe that the government
would enact strong federal reform while reinforcing the executive,
perhaps especially the prime minister, and introducing a new era
of markedly liberal economic policies. Thus, tax cuts and the promotion
of economic growth would create jobs and guarantee continuing
high standards of living. The government’s “honeymoon period,” however,
was short-lived. By the end of the year, trust in the government
had fallen to just below 50 percent, where it stabilized throughout
2002. Doubts about the government’s ability to deliver reflected its
poor performance on economic and social matters, resulting from both
the international economic downturn and its own mismanagement of
the domestic agenda, most notably industrial relations. By the autumn
of 2003, the Bank of Italy was drawing attention to a two-year period
of domestic stagnation and a decade-long investment slump.
Marcos Farias Ferreira, Máiréad Nic Craith, Markéta Slavková, Linda M. Mülli, Mariann Vaczi, Annika Lems, and Işıl Karataş
develop his engagement in the everydayness of social relations constituting today's Estonia – through conversations, artistic performances, interpretive reflections, or mere daily life roles – thereby allowing the reader to go beyond conceptual and