An American scholar is often struck by the absence of race in France as a category of analysis or the absence of discussions of race in its historical or sociological dimensions. After all, “race” on this side of the Atlantic, for reasons having to do with the peculiar history of the United States, has long been a focus of discussion. The notion of race has shaped scholarly analysis for decades, in history, sociology, and political science. Race also constitutes a category regularly employed by the state, in the census, in electoral districting, and in affirmative action. In France, on the contrary, race hardly seems acknowledged, in spite of both scholarly and governmental preoccupation with racism and immigration.
The Controversy over "Statistiques Ethniques"
Daniel Sabbagh and Shanny Peer
In the United States, while some race-based policies such as affirmative action have faced often successful political and legal challenges over the last quartercentury, historically, the very principle of official racial classification has met with much less resistance. The Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment, according to which “no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,” was not originally intended to incorporate a general rule of “color blindness.” And when in California, in 2003, the “Racial Privacy Initiative” led to a referendum on a measure—Proposition 54—demanding that “the state shall not classify any individual by race, ethnicity, color or national origin,” this restriction was meant to apply exclusively to the operation of public education, public contracting or public employment, that is, the three sites where affirmative action was once in effect and might be reinstated at some point, or so the proponents of that initiative feared. In any case, that measure was roundly defeated at the polls.
compromis particulier (Vol. 33, No. 3, 24) MANAGAN, Kathe . “One Hand Washes the Other”: Social Capital and the Politics of Leisure in Guadeloupean Associations (Vol. 33, No. 3, 75) MARKER, Emily . Obscuring Race: Franco-African Conversations about
, at home, and in migration, intersections of race, gender, and class, contrasts between rural and urban areas, or the multiple role of religious identities and legal statuses. Reconstructing those social realities will require new archives, of labor
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intellectual territory, and the journal has done so as well, in recent years giving special attention, for example, to French colonial history and its postcolonial consequences; to French-speaking societies outside Europe; to issues of gender, sexuality, race
Owen White and Elizabeth Heath
of racial ideologies that in turn did much to determine ethnic preferences for particular types of labor. 40 In this way a political economy of race fed into the elaboration of myths about the supposedly in-built aptitudes of Kabyle workers vis
Allan Mitchell, 1933—2016
in his next book, The Great Train Race: Railways and the Franco-German Rivalry, 1815–1914 , published in 2000 after years of research in often remote archives. Having agonized quite a lot over how to structure his comparison, he decided to look at
Historicizing the Gallic Singularity
Jean Elisabeth Pedersen
individual” to “express its particular relation to a group (a sex, an age, a race, a sexual preference),” she devoted the final lines of Les mots des femmes to the praise of the ten French women whose work she had featured as an alternative: “The words they
Engagements, Contexts, Reconsiderations
At one hundred, we are told, a book becomes a classic; at one hundred Simone de Beauvoir has surely become a legend. And yet, like all legends, she remains something of an enigma, yet to be discovered. To be discovered, perhaps, in a way similar to her own attempt at self-discovery in Hard Times (the second volume of The Force of Circumstance), which results in a moving encounter with symptoms, repressions, and defenses that reveal those darker unrepentant forces―dreams and nightmares―that haunt her life. To discover is also to uncover the pages of a partly-written life that recurs in a succession of dreams and nightmares. As Beauvoir puts it: “In my dreams … there are objects that have always recurred” as “receptacles of suffering … the hands of a watch that begin to race [moved] by a secret and appalling organic disorder; a piece of wood bleeds beneath the blow of an ax … I feel the terror of these nightmares in my waking hours, if I call to mind the walking skeletons of Calcutta orthose little gourds with human faces―children suffering from malnutrition.”
Globalizing the History of French Decolonization
Jessica Lynne Pearson
central Mediterranean lake. “Eurafrica,” as they called it, was the moral property—if not the political dominion—of all Europeans. As European contestants in this transcontinental car race zoomed through imperial borders, they claimed the space as their