The article simultaneously explores three lines of reflection and analysis woven around the comparative reverberations (in space and time) between citizenship and the administration of populations (states of exception) in the Republic of Ecuador during the nineteenth century and the Kingdom of Spain in the twenty century. The first thread tries to answer the question whether it is possible for concepts generated in a country of the Global South to be used usefully in analyzing a different Northern reality, inverting the usual direction in the flows of transfer and importation of “theory.“ The second theme of comparative reverberation explores a network of concepts concerning the citizenship of common sense and the administration of populations, that is the “back-patio“ aspect of citizenship, particularly its historical formation in the domination of populations in the Republic of Ecuador during the nineteenth century. It is centered on the process of identification in the daily exchanges between interpares citizens and extrapares non-citizens. The last section involves testing concepts forged in the author's studies of Ecuadorian history for their utility in analyzing the current situation of modern sub-Saharan immigrants in Spain (using concrete examples), and their reclusion to the private sphere in spaces of exception and abandonment. Here, the article concentrates on the difference between the public administration of populations and the private administration of citizens. The article uses documentary material relating to nineteenth-century Ecuador and twentieth-century Spain and Senegal.
African immigrants in twentieth-century Spain and Indians in nineteenth-century Ecuador
Graham Holderness and Carol Banks
Although this last issue in Volume 12 is eclectic rather than the- matic, the articles and interviews all focus on poetry and fiction written in the second half of the twentieth century.
Allan Mitchell, 1933–2016
Allan Mitchell, the renowned historian of Franco-German relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, passed away on 30 October 2016, after an operation from which he sadly did not recover.
Sergey I. Kuznetsov and Yury A. Petrushin
The conference “Siberian Society in the Context of Russian History from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century” was held at Irkutsk State University in October 2009, and commemorated the second centenary of Eastern Siberia governor general Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky’s birth.
A Transatlantic Journey of American Liberalism
John Layton Harvey
To study how American scholars have written about the history of France over the course of the last hundred years is, in certain ways, to appraise the evolving contours of American liberalism. For American historians who specialize in the past of France, its empire, or its wider continental context, the twentieth century saw a steady growth of institutional optimism. Although conservative suspicion against popular sovereignty and universal Enlightenment reason once markedly influenced the profession, since the late 1950s the American study of France has been increasingly associated with an advancement of progressive-minded ideals. Yet, reflections over the past thirty years on the development of French history in American universities have been curiously silent on the nature or evolution of liberalism within their field. Its contours and challenges over the course of the twentieth century, as a distinct intellectual focus within the wider American Academy, remain in some ways terra incognita.
The treatment of cultural difference and diversity by French-speaking cartoonists has changed radically over the last few decades, as four articles in this special issue demonstrate. What has not changed since the nineteenth century is the centrality of these themes to comics, which have been a globalizing medium in a shrinking world throughout the period. French-language comics are exemplary of these transformations, insofar as France was a major imperialist power during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Moreover, France has long been home to ethnic and religious minorities, and was a major center of immigration during the twentieth century. These socio-historical trends have left a huge imprint on comics within France itself, but the French also exported the form along with their language to most of their colonies, which has given rise to (post-)colonial traditions of cartooning in French-speaking regions across the globe.
The role of women in making art and the agency of the overly-represented female body in artistic practices have been crucial debates in twentieth-century Western feminism and beyond. In particular, it was in the wake of the second wave of feminism, with the emergence of poststructuralism and deconstruction, and the postmodern turn that critical assessments of the arts started claiming back female spaces and voices in the midst of a still largely patriarchal artistic scene.
Negotiating Identities in the Post-World(s)
The main theme of this volume of Aspasia and of its Forum, ‘Women Writers and Intellectuals’, seems to be at the same time quite traditional and also very timely. It is traditional in the sense that debates over the role of intellectuals have taken place since the early nineteenth century and, in the region that Aspasia focusses on, have been of particular importance throughout the twentieth century; it is very timely because these debates continue to take place and be relevant. This volume of Aspasia contributes to this ongoing debate from the perspective of gender.
On the shelves labelled ‘Just published and shortly to be remaindered’, customers of ‘all the best bookstores’ will perhaps notice a volume by Mr Clive James entitled Cultural Memories: Necessary Memories from History and the Arts. Indeed, it would be hard not to notice this 876 page monument to its author’s verbosity. US readers will perhaps not recognise the name of this television critic turned Conscience of the Twentieth Century, but UK readers will be long familiar with his inimitable brand of soft right-wing bombast masquerading as common sense and delivered with ponderous wit.
Carl A. Maida and Sam Beck
This is Part Two of a set of articles related to how communities of practice inform global sustainability; a more extensive introductory essay (Maida and Beck 2016) is included in the first of this two-part special issue. The community of practice is an organisational form, which since the late twentieth century, has accelerated with advances in information production and dissemination (Wenger 2000). Communities of practice ensure greater engagement for sustainability by a public as local and global actors. As a paradigm that arose through the anthropological imagination, the community of practice is an organisational form that complements the current knowledge economy (Lave 1988).