What impact did the so-called Vatileaks scandal have on Italian politics? And how deep were the connections between the Vatican and the Italian transition of political assets in 2012? This in-depth analysis shows that the problems of the Church in relation to the state came much before the 2012 crisis, namely, during the time of the reluctant submission of Catholic hierarchies to Berlusconism.
Asher D. Colombo and Luigi La Fauci
In 2013, the European Court of Human Rights found that the conditions inside Italian prisons were so bad, they amounted to inhuman and/or degrading punishment. Since that time, the Italian government has attempted to reduce overcrowding inside prisons. This chapter shows that most of the reduction in overcrowding has not been the result of amnesties, pardons, or other forms of early release, such as electronic tagging. Rather, it is the result of changes that have decreased the number of individuals entering prison, in particular prisoners on remand and those awaiting final sentencing.
Work, Colleagues, and Family
The article is devoted to the famous explorer and writer Vladimir Klavdievich Arsen'ev (1872–1930). He arrived in the Russian Far East in 1900, where he conducted numerous research expeditions and engaged in a comprehensive study of the Far East. Arsen'ev studied the lives of the region's indigenous peoples and published several books, Dersu Uzala being the most famous one. This article is based on Arsen'ev's personal archives, which are stored in Vladivostok. The article chronicles his life in the Soviet period. It also discusses the punishment of his wives and children.
The Imprisonment of Women in Eighteenth-Century Siberia
women was not an anomaly, but rather a set of regular measures to counter political opposition of the elite through corporal punishment. Notable elite women, such as Ekaterina Dolgorukaia, Peter II's fiancée, also accompanied their noble families in
Ideals, Dreams, and Nightmares
Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild
/or as social outcasts, punished because of guilt by association to their disgraced husbands. She documents the harsh conditions in the camps, the forced labor, the vile food, the dehumanization, the “ritualized sexual humiliation and punishment used to
Dueling in the Greek Capital, 1870–1918
“small people” were not allowed to engage in the practice at all, since they were altogether without honor. 36 Dueling (and the lack of punishment for such) was a privilege of class that other “less worthy” and “dishonorable” classes did not possess. It
Europe and East Asia in Russian Political Caricature, 1900–1905
violence against the Boxers with black humor. M. Mukhin's “At a reception in Berlin” ( figure 6 ) in Iskry mocks Marshal Waldersee's widespread use of capital punishment against Boxers and their sympathizers. 35 In the image, a Chinese man apologizes for
Same-Sex Intimacy in Nineteenth-Century Polish Correspondence
to exile in Siberia as punishment for his crimes. Żmichowska sometimes corresponded with him through Wanda Grabowska and Seweryn Markiewicz. 41 Bolesława Rodysowa, cousin of Henryk Wohl, and friend of Żmichowska, Matylda Natansonowa, and the
Sex, Gender, and Emotions among Polish Displaced Person in the Aftermath of World War II
prostitution, seen as violent coercion, and to prostitutes, who had to be rescued from their plight through charity. 90 Punishment for the orgy of freedom—in the form of social condemnation, separation, exclusion from the community and from the emigration
Photographers of Siberia in Late Imperial Russia
experience of the exiles in Siberia—work, family life, illness; and the political and social impact of the exile system on Siberia and the political regime, which established and expanded the system of punishment. 7 This article first asks why it was that