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Jean Terrier

the “fact and norm” for everyone from John Rawls to Jürgen Habermas. 3 In contrast, other interpretations, such as the one proposed by Henrik Enroth, suggest that even pluralists are advocates of plurality in appearance only, because of their eventual

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Lauri Rapeli and Inga Saikkonen

conditions. Hence, there is little to suggest that COVID-19 would deal a devastating—let alone lasting—blow to the institutions of old Western democracies. Impact on Democratic Backsliding Democratic forms of government became the global norm at the

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Investigating the Investigators

French Colonial Attempts to Supervise Its Policing System during the 1930s*

Ruth Ginio

legal norms. Murder cases came before the district court, which served also as a criminal court. Typically, the district commander or his deputy presided over cases. In addition, two African notables had a consultative voice in the proceedings. The

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Art to Table

The Power of Aesthetics in Women’s Cookbooks of the Belle Époque

Samantha Presnal

gender norms without seeming to sabotage the social system. Mix: Combining Domestic Cuisine and Concepts of Art Imbrications of food and art can be traced to the distant past, from the intricate engravings found on serving vessels to the vibrant

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Ottoman Conceptual History

Challenges and Prospects

Alp Eren Topal and Einar Wigen

has pointed out, the norms for what constituted a “good text” in Ottoman circles were very different from the qualities European posterity sought in them and judged them by. 48 From Goethe onward, Europeans have been looking for originality, since

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“Give Me Back My Son!”

Eleanor of Aquitaine, Emotion Talk, and the Gendering of Political Rhetoric

Linda E. Mitchell

populations expressing themselves emotionally, are by their identification as being outside the norm dismissed or denigrated. Feminist theorists have demonstrated that ingrained cultural attitudes tend to interpret emotion talk differently for different groups

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Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus, and Katja Mäkinen

with the intertwined phases of European integration and processes of Europeanization. Europeanization can be defined as international socialization where formal and informal rules, procedures, policies, and norms are constructed, diffused, and

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The Battle of El Herri in Morocco

Narratives of Colonial Conquest during World War I

Caroline Campbell

that the rape of women was common and constituted the “symbolic castration of the men of the conquered group.” 28 As Castaneda and others have pointed out, patriarchal norms rooted in Western society devalued women as essentially property of men; the

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Competing Visions

The Visual Culture of the Congo Free State and Fin de Siècle Europe

Matthew G. Stanard

representational norms not only fed into a nascent European visual culture of the Congo, it also confirms that Leopold's colony was international in nature from its earliest years. National cultures invested in feats of exploration, and interest in Africa crossed

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Richard Bessel

established ethical system of norms—religion became a taboo, bourgeois legality despised, and standards of humanitarian (or, if one prefers, “chivalrous”) conduct of warfare scorned. In their place emerged not a new form of social justice but rather the