constituents, and its most basic responsibility was ensuring subsistence. In the nineteenth century, the study of food in the colonies fell under the scope of “tropical hygiene,” a medical discipline concerned primarily with the maintenance of white bodies
Book Review Essay
Louise Nelson Dyble
David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, Food, Energy and Society, 3rd ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008), xix + 380 pp.
James E. McWilliams, Just Food: Where Locavores Get it Wrong and How We can Truly Eat Responsibly (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2009), 258 pp., Pb US$14.99.
C. Claire Hinrichs and Thomas A. Lyson, eds., Remaking the North American Food System: Strategies for Sustainability (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2008), 384 pp., Hb US$45.00, Pb US$29.95.
David Burch and Geoffrey Lawrence, eds., Supermarkets and Agri-food Supply Chains (Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2007), xiv + 330 pp.
, before the Iron Age and the Bronze Age, in the Neolithic Period when horticulture and the raising of food animals became bases of subsistence. 6 Matriliny in Europe from the Neolithic The earliest crop-raising cultures of northern Europe had been
Justin Izzo, Valerie Deacon, and John P. Murphy
In the Museum of Man: Race, Anthropology, and Empire in France, 1850–1950 by Alice L. Conklin Justin Izzo
What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II by Mary Louise Roberts Valerie Deacon
Food, Farms, and Solidarity: French Farmers Challenge Industrial Agriculture and Genetically Modified Crops by Chaia Heller John P. Murphy
At the dawn of the 21st century, something new may be happening in the heartland of America: the spread of a negative image of France.1 Traditionally, a mostly positive image of France linked to its reputation for good food, high fashion, and sophisticated tourism, coexisted with a somewhat negative image in some elite circles. But the most important factor was definitely a lack of knowledge and the fact that above all, indifference reigned supreme. (See Body-Gendrot in this issue.)
Maria Bucur, Alexandra Ghit, Ayşe Durakbaşa, Ivana Pantelić, Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild, Elizabeth A. Wood, Anna Müller, Galina Goncharova, Zorana Antonijević, Katarzyna Sierakowska, Andrea Feldman, Maria Kokkinou, Alexandra Zavos, Marija M. Bulatović, Siobhán Hearne, and Rayna Gavrilova
the average peasant woman remained difficult, ranging from repression and starvation in the 1930s through the war years to the continued misogyny and corruption of the postwar period. Peasant women were able to win the right to raise food in private
The Close Relationship between the Historians Georges Lefebvre and Robert R. Palmer
For some twenty years the historians Georges Lefebvre and Robert R. Palmer maintained a "transatlantic friendship." Beginning with his translation of Lefebvre's Coming of the French Revolution, Palmer became a close friend of his French colleague, providing him with much-needed food, books, and information. In return Lefebvre published articles written by his American friend in his journal Annales historiques de la Révolution française as well as offered advice about his research. Thanks to their intellectual cooperation, the two advanced the study of the Revolution in their respective countries. Despite the considerable differences between their political outlooks—Lefebvre was a committed Marxist and Palmer was a liberal Democrat—the two men remained close friends until Lefebvre's death in 1959. Much of this article is based on the recently published correspondence of Lefebvre with Palmer.
Asbestos, Aids and Genetically Modified Agriculture
David Vogel and Jabril Bensedrine
This article compares three health, safety and environmental policies in France and the United States: the regulation of asbestos, the regulatory impact of the health crisis associated with AIDS, and the regulation of genetically modified foods and seeds. These cases illustrate the evolution of regulatory policies and politics in France and the United States over the last three decades. In brief, risk management policies have become less politicized and risk averse in the United States, while they have become more politicized and risk averse in France. In many respects, regulatory politics and policies in France during the 1990s resemble those of the United States from the 1960s and through the late 1980s.
Au bon beurre, La traversée de Paris, and the Black Market in France
Jean Dutourd's novel Au bon beurre (1952) and Claude Autant-Lara's film La Traversée de Paris (1956) offer the best-known depictions of black market activity in Occupied France, appreciated by audiences who had lived through the war. This article looks at the black market stories they tell and their reception in France in the 1950s. It focuses on the fictional stories in relation to the historical experience from which they were drawn, and analyzes their selective representation of behaviors and the key relationships on which black market activity relied. Both works capture widely shared Occupation experiences of food shortages and exploitation. They highlight popular resentment of profiteers, the ability of the wealthy to escape wartime hardship and postwar justice, and the corruption and incompetence of the state in managing shortages and postwar purges.
Since the 1960s, Germany’s historical culture has continually reprocessed
the Nazi past and later the Holocaust for the purposes of education,
remembrance, and entertainment. The objective of this process,
Vergangenheitsbewältigung, is the self-centered and self-designed
therapeutic treatment of the descendants of the perpetrators and
bystanders of Nazism. It seems that Germans, who were better fascists
than other Europeans, are also determined to excel at the task of
working through Nazism and the World War II era. Therefore,
attempts at mastering the past have given rise to hectic cultural activity
as the field of contemporary history illustrates: “[I]ncessantly the
German business for contemporary history generates fast-food products.
It is based on a perpetual mobile of commissions, projects and
mini-grants, temporary employment and welfare-to-work subsidies,
conferences and lecture series—a perpetual mobile of pedagogical historiography
and history obsessed pedagogy.”