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Gerhard L. Weinberg

This article covers three aspects of the Holocaust that are commonly misrepresented or ignored. First, an endlessly repeated piece of misinformation, is the description of the Holocaust as a project to kill the Jews of Europe. Most ignore the evidence that all Jews on earth were to be killed, that some outside Europe were killed, and that there were preparations for the killing of Jews in the Middle East. The second is the German expectation of winning the war, and that certain policies in implementing the Holocaust can only be understood in the context of an expectation of easier completion after victory. The third aspect is the absence from most accounts of the personal interests of those doing the killing in promotions, medals, loot, etc. in the early years and in safety from dangerous assignment to fighting at the front in the later years of the war.

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Katrin Sieg

’s Le Havre (Finland/France/Germany, 2011) and The Other Side of Hope (Finland, 2017) show older men shelter young refugees, and protect them against the French and Finnish governments’ attempts to detain and deport them, respectively. 23 Le Havre

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Helga Druxes, Christopher Thomas Goodwin, Catriona Corke, Carol Hager, Sabine von Mering, Randall Newnham, and Jeff Luppes

Germany and France.” (11) Here I should add that although the contributors—historians and political scientists from Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, Israel, and Finland—in all six parts often touch on the German Democratic Republic

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Populist Rhetoric and Nativist Alarmism

The AfD in Comparative Perspective

Barbara Donovan

the Czech Republic's Freedom and Direct Democracy, the Danish People's Party, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, and Finland's True Finns. Heralded by Salvini as a coalition of national conservatives and patriots, 2 the new group would create a

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Two Failures of Left Internationalism

Political Mimesis at French University Counter-Summits, 2010–2011

Eli Thorkelson

the Université de Lille-2, explained to the interviewer that French university reforms were hardly unique in Europe; that similar managerial policies had been seen in Spain, Italy, Finland, Denmark, Germany, the UK, and Greece; and that these policies

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Unsere Mütter, Unsere Väter

War, Genocide and “Condensed Reality”

David Wildermuth

had to use the toughest means to restore order … In the last days thousands [of prisoners] have been sent away. Now it is a lot easier for us, even if the misery still cries out to heaven.” 50 Everywhere behind the 3,000 km front, from Finland to the

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German Debts

Entangled Histories of the Greek–German Relationship and Their Varied Effects

Klaus Neumann

, and Finland had to make payments to several other countries, including Greece, which received a combined total of $150 million from Italy and Bulgaria. 14 With the beginning of the Cold War, deindustrializing West Germany and crippling its economy by