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Penny McCall Howard

This article examines the "power and the pain of class relations" (Ortner 2006) through the experience of Scottish men working in the global shipping, offshore oil, and fishing industries: industries in which the nationality of workers has changed significantly since the 1980s. It combines recent anthropological literature on subjectivity and cosmopolitanism with a Marxist understanding of class as generated through differing relationships to production. The article describes how British seafarers have experienced the cosmopolitanization of their workplaces, as workers from Portugal, Eastern Europe, and the Philippines have been recruited by employers in order to reduce wages, working conditions, and trade union organization. Drawing on Therborn (1980), it concludes that the experiences gained through this process have led to the development of multiple and often contradictory subjectivities, which people draw on as they choose how to act in moments of crisis, and as they imagine possible futures.

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The anthropology of human-environment relations

Materialism with and without Marxism

Penny McCall Howard

(129). Figure 2 Prawns, also known as langoustines, Nephrops norvegicus , and Norway lobster (photo by the author) Grounds are both “a fact of the environment” and “a fact of behavior,” both “subjective” and “objective.” While Gibson was mainly